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Answer Key Answers are provided for all questions and tasks. Please note that there may be more than one correct “answer” for specific entries in the notetaking organizers. Students should receive credit for accurate alternate responses.
Chapter 1 Section 1 Checkpoint the Bering Strait OL Vocabulary Builder They built temples for and made human sacrifices to their gods. A Reading Strategy Students should underline the sentence: “After defeating half of Mexico during the 1400s, the Aztecs made people pay high taxes.” Students should circle the sentence: “People turned against them.”
Check Your Progress 1. Farming allowed people to settle in one place and led to the development of cities. 2. The Mayas built elaborate temples. The Aztecs built the sacred city of Tenochtitlán. The Incas built a network of roadways. Notetaking Study Guide The Land Bridge: ocean levels were lower because of glaciers; Bering Strait; Siberia and Alaska; between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago; people from Asia crossed it into North America; How Early Civilizations Developed: 1. hunters, North America, South America; 2. larger animals, hunting, gathering; 3. 8,000, Mexico, squash, lima beans; 4. irrigation, water, animals; 5. population, extra, traded; 6. cities; Three Great Civilizations: Mayas: Mexico, Central America; built cities with plazas lined with pyramids, temples, ball courts, and palaces, developed arts, system of government, written language, calendar; Aztecs: Mexico; built Tenochtitlán⎯perhaps largest city in the world at one time, had temples, stone roadways, and floating gardens, conquered half of Mexico; Incas: South America; built great network of roads, buildings of huge stones, produced fine weavings and metalwork, rulers wore gold and silver jewelry
Chapter 1 Section 2 Checkpoint Mississippians or Mound Builders, Anasazi, Hohokam Checkpoint sticks, bones, and shells A Reading Strategy Students should underline “dry”; Students should circle “stored water for the dry season”
Vocabulary Builder Comprised means “was made up of” or “included.” The Iroquois included five nations, each with different clans or families. Checkpoint Far North, Northwest, Far West, Southwest, Great Plains, Eastern Woodlands, Southeast Check Your Progress 1. Culture groups had to adapt their way of life to the environment. 2. They believed spirits dwelled in nature. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Notetaking Study Guide First Cultures of North America: Mound Builders: Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi Valley; constructed mounds for burials and buildings, built the first cities in North America; Anasazi: Southern Utah, Colorado, northern Arizona, New Mexico; built cliff dwellings, made baskets, pottery, and jewelry; Hohokam: deserts of Arizona; skilled at farming, dug canals for irrigation, traded for seashells; Native Americans of North America: Far North Arctic: (environment) harsh, often ice-covered; (way of life) fished, hunted marine mammals; Far North Subarctic (environment) dense forests, climate too cold for farming; (way of life) gathered forest plants, hunted caribou, moose, bear; Northwest: (environment) southern Alaska to northern California; (way of life) hunted and gathered in forests rich with animals and plants, fished in rivers; Far West: (environment) north: cold winters in the forests and grasslands, south: desertlike, warm summers and mild winters; (way of life) people ate small game, fish, and berries; pit houses and cone-shaped houses covered with bark in the south, houses of wooden planks in the north; Southwest: (environment) Arizona, New Mexico, and the southern parts of Utah and Colorado, dry most of the year, summer thunderstorms; (way of life) farming, some hunting, collect and store rain for the dry times, large apartment houses made of adobe; Great Plains: (environment) Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains; eastern Plains allowed farming, western Plains were too dry and matted with grass to be farmed; (way of life) Eastern Plains: women planted corn, beans, squash, homes were earth lodges; Western Plains: homes were tepees or round pits, buffalo provided food, shelter, clothing, tools; Eastern Woodlands: (environment) southern Canada, Great Lakes, New York, Atlantic coast to Virginia, covered with forests; (way of life) hunting and gathering, farming by A.D. 1000; Southeast: (environment) steamy and hot; (way of life) houses on wooden frames with straw mats plastered with mud clay, farming
Chapter 1 Section 3 Checkpoint Islam Vocabulary Builder possible answers: wealthy, prosperous, rich Checkpoint East Africa: Zimbabwe, Kilwa; West Africa: Ghana, Mali, Timbuktu, Songhai A Reading Strategy Possible answers include: Question: What are some of the elements of modern
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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civilization that existed in Ancient China? Answer: highways, canals, and a postal system Checkpoint the magnetic compass Check Your Progress 1. Possible answers: the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean; 2. The Silk Road was a 5,000-mile series of routes that stretched from Xian in China to Persia. Notetaking Study Guide The Muslim Link in Trade: Asia, Africa, Europe; Arabian; Islam, Muhammad; conquest; medicine, astronomy; sails; The African Link in Trade: East Africa: Zimbabwe; Kilwa, pottery, ivory; Indian Ocean; West Africa: Middle East, camel caravans; Ghana; gold, salt; Timbuktu; Songhai; The East Asian Link in Trade: China; magnetic compass; Zheng He, 50; Silk Road, road, a series of routes; silks, bronze goods, pottery, spices, European
Chapter 1 Section 4 OL Vocabulary Builder Possible answers: monotheism, the idea that there is only one God, or the idea that even powerful rulers had to obey God’s laws A Reading Strategy Students should circle: “Judaism
and Christianity shaped European religious and moral beliefs”; Students should underline: “There is only one God” or, “all people, even powerful rulers, had to obey them” (God’s laws). Checkpoint Judaism, Christianity Checkpoint women, slaves, foreign-born people Checkpoint 476: Rome fell to invaders, 1095: Pope Urban II declared a crusade, or holy war, 1517: Martin Luther demands changes in the Catholic Church Checkpoint the magnetic compass, the astrolabe
Notetaking Study Guide Ancient Traditions and Their Influence: Row 1: Judaism, monotheism; Row 2: Middle East or Israel, Christianity, salvation; Row 3: democracy, ordinary citizens; Row 4: republic, code of laws, representatives, innocent until proven guilty; Events That Influenced Europe: Crusades: 1095 and for the next 200 years; in contact with the more advanced Muslim civilization; Renaissance: 1300s, classical texts, Greece, Rome, art, science, inventions; Protestant Reformation: 1517, Martin Luther, Catholic Church, Protestant churches
Chapter 1 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. B, 3. A, 4. C A 1. A, 2. B, 3. B
Step 1: Judaism: (tradition) monotheism or belief in one God, (effect) even powerful rulers had to obey God’s laws; Christianity: (tradition) all people have a chance for salvation, (effect) As later emperors converted, 2
Chapter 1 Notetaking Study Guide The First Americans: land bridge, early people crossed into North America here; Three Civilizations: farming, Mayas, Aztecs, Incas; Native Americans of North America: adapted their way of life, nature; Trade Networks of Asia and Africa: Asia, Africa, Europe; Islam, Muhammad; Zimbabwe, Kilwa; Ghana, Mali, Songhai; Silk Road; The Judeo-Christian Tradition: Middle East, 1700s B.C., monotheism; 2,000, threat, dominant religion; Greek and Roman Traditions: political systems, democracy, republic, representatives to govern them; New Horizons: Middle, Catholic Church; crusades, Muslim; Renaissance, ancient Greece and Rome; Henry the Navigator, Portugal; Protestant Reformation
Chapter 2 Section 1 OL Vocabulary Builder 1. undertook; 2. undertaken A Reading Strategy Timelines should include events for August 1492, October 1492, January 1493, September 1493, 1498, 1502, and 1506.
Checkpoint Spain Checkpoint Vasco Núñez de Balboa Checkpoint smallpox, chickenpox, measles Check Your Progress 1. 1492, 1493, 1498, and 1502; 2. European explorers included Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, and Ferdinand Magellan. Notetaking Study Guide Leif Erikson: Greenland, 1001; Newfoundland, Vinland; Columbus: sailing west; Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain; Cuba, Hispaniola; Puerto Rico; South America, Asian; Amerigo Vespucci: Asia, “the lands of Amerigo”; Vasco Núñez de Balboa:
Check Your Progress 1. The Judeo-Christian traditions helped shaped European religious and moral beliefs, and the Greek and Roman traditions shaped European political systems. 2. It fragmented into small states.
Christianity became the dominant religion of Europe; Step 2: Athens: (traditions) In a direct democracy, all male citizens could participate in making decisions. Democracy depended on educated citizens, so boys studied many subjects; (effect) U.S. founders influenced by idea of democracy; Rome: (traditions) In a republic, people chose representatives to govern them. Everybody was equal under the law, and an accused person was innocent until proven guilty. (effect) Roman principles formed the framework of the American system of justice. Step 3: Answers will vary, but students’ paragraphs should synthesize Steps 1 and 2 and be similar to: Judaism and Christianity shaped religious and moral beliefs in Europe, while Greek and Roman traditions shaped political systems in Europe and the United States. For example, Judaism taught that even rulers have to follow God’s laws, and many emperors converted to Christianity, which taught that all people have a chance at salvation. Greece and Rome spread direct democracy, representative government, and equality under the law.
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Panama, Pacific Ocean; Ferdinand Magellan: AtlanticPacific, 1519; Strait of Magellan; Philippine Islands; Spain; circumnavigate; The Columbian Exchange: a transfer of people, products, and ideas between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres; From Europe to the Americas: cows, hogs, and other domestic animals, many food plants such as wheat and oats, diseases such as smallpox, chickenpox, measles; From the Americas to Europe: animals such as llamas, turkeys, squirrels, and muskrats, crops that Native American peoples taught the Europeans to cultivate
Chapter 2 Section 2 Checkpoint Moctezuma was the Aztec leader. Atahualpa was the Inca leader. Checkpoint Juan Ponce de León, Ál//var Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Francisco Coronado, Hernando De Soto OL Vocabulary Builder administration A Reading Strategy It shows that this part will tell what Spanish colonies in the Americas were like.
Check Your Progress 1. The conquistadors were adventurer-soldiers from Spain, who wanted to conquer new lands and find riches. 2. The four levels of Spanish colonial society included the peninsulares, the Creoles, the mestizos, and the mulattos. Notetaking Study Guide Spanish Conquistadors: explore, conquer, riches, glory, Spain; Hernán Cortés: 2. Tenochtitlán, 3. they wanted to throw off the brutal rule of the Aztecs, 4. Moctezuma, 5. took Moctezuma hostage and claimed all of Mexico for Spain, 6. Aztecs rebel and force the Spaniards to flee, 7. returned with a larger force, captured Tenochtitlán, and destroyed it; Francisco Pizarro: 1. Cortés; 2. Incas, 3. 170, 4. Atahualpa, 5. a huge ransom to free their ruler, 6. executed him, 7. the Spanish had defeated the Incas and captured their capital city of Cuzco; Why Conquistadors Defeated Native Americans: 1. were no match for the Spaniards’ armor, muskets, and cannons, 2. Many of the Spaniards were on horseback, 3. were divided among themselves; The Spanish Social System: Peninsulares: Spanish colonists born in Spain; top of the social structure, most were government officials; Creoles: born in America of two Spanish parents; wealthy merchants and plantation owners; Mestizos: people of Spanish and Indian blood; ranchers, farmers, merchants, upper levels; Mulattos: people of Spanish and African heritage; bottom
Chapter 2 Section 3 Vocabulary Builder 1. magnifying, 2. magnificent A Reading Strategy Students should underline “This put Henry’s other daughter Elizabeth I—a Protestant— on the throne” and “the English raided Spanish ships carrying gold from the Americas.” OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Checkpoint to pay for their wars, to strengthen their armies Checkpoint the northwest passage Check Your Progress 1. It shifted the balance of power in Europe from Spain to France. It also helped England and France found colonies in the Americas. 2. It would provide a shorter route to Asia and make it easier to trade. Notetaking Study Guide Conflicts in Europe: Catholics, Protestants, religious, economic; broke with the Catholic Church, Church of England; John Calvin, Scotland; wealth, power, gold; mercantilism, colonies; Roman Catholic Church, Elizabeth I, Protestant; 130, Spanish Armada, Elizabeth from the English throne; defeated the Armada off the coast of France, power, in the Americas; John Cabot: region around Newfoundland, maybe as far south as Chesapeake Bay; vanished without a trace; Giovanni da Verrazano: Atlantic coastal region from North Carolina to Newfoundland; Hudson River, New York Bay; Jacques Cartier: St. Lawrence River; present-day Montreal; Henry Hudson: mutinied and set Hudson and others adrift
Chapter 2 Section 4 Checkpoint Samuel Champlain Checkpoint New Amsterdam, New York OL Vocabulary Builder The Iroquois, who were an enemy of the Hurons, used guns from the Dutch to devastate the Hurons. A Reading Strategy Students should circle “the traders provided goods such as cloth, iron pots and tools, and guns.” Students should underline “alliances, however, proved harmful,” “led to warfare,” “Diseases caused by contact with Europeans also killed many Native Americans,” and “the overtrapping of animals weakened the food chain on which Native Americans depended.”
Checkpoint the Iroquois, the Hurons Check Your Progress 1. He traveled the length of the Mississippi River to its mouth in the Gulf of Mexico. 2. Alliances that were detrimental to some tribes; diseases that killed many Native Americans; overtrapping of animals Notetaking Study Guide New France: St. Lawrence River area; Quebec City, Montreal; fish and furs; traded with them for animal skins; market for furs; New Netherland: Hudson River valley; 1610; Dutch West India Company; Fort Orange (later renamed Albany); New Amsterdam; New York, English; The Impact on Native Americans: 1. pelts, cloth, iron pots and tools, and guns; 2. alliances, Iroquois, Huron; 3. Diseases; 4. weakened the food chain; 5. fur-bearing animals, lands
Chapter 2 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. B, 3. D, 4. B A 1. A, 2. C, 3. C
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Step 1 conquistadors, find gold, conquer new lands; riches, glory, pay for their wars, strengthen their armies; Step 2 Hernán Cortés: From Cuba to Mexico; Overthrew the Aztecs, destroyed Tenochtitlán, and built Mexico City; Francisco Pizarro: Peru; Juan Ponce de León: Became first Spaniard to set foot in what is now United States, did not find gold; Ál//var Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: Florida’s west coast to the Texas coast; Searched for gold near site of present-day St. Petersburg, was later enslaved by Native Americans, found no riches; Francisco Coronado: New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Kansas; Searched in vain for the mythical seven cities of gold; Hernando De Soto: the Carolinas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi; Found the Mississippi River, did not find gold; Step 3 Answers will vary, but students should complete the topic sentence and support their positions with information from steps 1 and 2.
Chapter 2 Notetaking Study Guide 1. the Americas; 2. gold; The Spanish set out to explore and conquer the Americas to win riches for themselves and glory for Spain; 3. people, products, ideas; iron pots and tools, guns; germs, smallpox, chickenpox, measles; 4. Mexico, Aztecs, Spain; 5. Peru, Atahualpa, Incas; 6. blood, birthplace, 300 years; 7. Catholics, Protestants, European nations sought gold from the Americas to pay for their wars and strengthen their armies; 8. Spanish Armada, power, England, France; 9. Overtrapping; 10. Native American lands
Chapter 3 Section 1 Checkpoint to provide new markets for its products and to obtain raw materials for its industries Vocabulary Builder They were given free land. Checkpoint tobacco A Reading Strategy Sample question: Why was the Mayflower Compact important? Sample answer: It was the first document in which colonists claimed selfgovernment.
Checkpoint Pilgrims Check Your Progress 1. It vanished without a trace. 2. House of Burgesses Notetaking Study Guide England Seeks Colonies: markets for English products, important raw materials for English industries; Roanoke, failed; 1585: Abandoned a year later; 1587: Vanished without a trace; Founding Jamestown: 1607: Virginia Company of London founds Jamestown, First permanent English settlement; looking for gold instead of doing farm work, food for the winter, 38 colonists still alive; 1608: John Smith, “He who works not, eats not,” improved; 1609: is injured and returns to England, worsened; Winter 1609− 1610: refuses to supply colonists with food, only 60 colonists still alive; Jamestown Prospers: 1612: Colonists 4
Chapter 3 Section 2 Checkpoint Southern: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island; Northern: New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine Checkpoint King Charles I Checkpoint Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, Thomas Hooker, John Wheelright A Reading Strategy Students should underline “towns and churches should govern themselves,” “people should work hard and live in stable families”; Sample general statement: Puritans believed that people should be independent and work hard.
Checkpoint to prevent Puritan expansion Check Your Progress 1. He believed that Puritans should leave the Church of England, not reform it, and that colonists should pay Native Americans for land, not seize it. 2. They believed that they should govern themselves. Notetaking Study Guide Geography of New England: Thin, rocky, farming; long, jagged, richest fishing grounds; fewer diseases, lived longer; Puritans in Massachusetts Bay: reform, split from, England; King Charles I persecuted them; would provide an example to others; 1630s: Massachusetts Bay Company; John Winthrop, respected landowner and lawyer; Boston and other settlements; General Court; adult male members of the Puritan church; 20,000 people lived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony; New Colonies: led to new colonies; toleration; Roger Williams: split from the Church of England, colonists should pay Native Americans for land; Providence, Rhode Island; established church; Anne Hutchinson: expelled from Massachusetts, New York State; Thomas Hooker: Puritan leaders; Hartford, Connecticut; Fundamental Orders of Connecticut; John Wheelright: Hutchison’s; Exeter, New Hampshire; separate colony
Chapter 3 Section 3 Checkpoint New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware Checkpoint It blocked access between England’s northern and southern colonies.
planted tobacco, a crop native to the Americas; income, Virginia farmers were selling all the tobacco they could grow; 1619: House of Burgesses, marked the start of representative government in North America; Summer of 1619: Dutch ship arrived in Virginia from the West Indies, 20 enslaved Africans; Plymouth Colony: 1607− 1609: Several groups of English Separatists settled in Holland, from the Church of England, religion in their own way; 1620: Pilgrims, Holland, Plymouth; 41 adult males sign the Mayflower Compact, first document in which American colonists claimed a right to govern themselves
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OL Vocabulary Builder It was too far away from their homes. A Reading Strategy Students should underline: “all people are equal, have a direct link with God, do not need ministers”
Checkpoint the “holy experiment” Checkpoint shoemakers, carpenters, masons, weavers, and coopers Check Your Progress 1. They believed that all people are equal, have a direct link with God, and therefore do not need ministers. They also refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. 2. It changed from a proprietary colony to a royal colony ruled by the king. Notetaking Study Guide New York: New Netherland, farming and fur trade, hostile, trade, England’s northern colonies, its colonies farther south, King Charles II, James, New York, New York City; New Jersey: 1665, proprietary, it received a new charter as a royal colony; Pennsylvania: William Penn, King Charles II, 1681, Quakers, to create a colony in which people from different religious backgrounds could live peacefully, Frame of Government for Pennsylvania, an elected assembly, freedom of religion, it produced so much wheat, Scotch-Irish (or non-English), Pennsylvania Dutch; Delaware: Swedish, Delaware settlers did not want to send delegates to a distant assembly in Philadelphia, Delaware became a separate colony
Checkpoint Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia Vocabulary Builder The governor did not come between the Native Americans and the poor colonists. Checkpoint Bacon’s Rebellion Checkpoint the Act of Toleration A Reading Strategy Students should circle “because it
lacked harbors and rivers for ships.” Checkpoint James Oglethorpe Checkpoint rice, tobacco Check Your Progress 1. It grew from 10,000 to 40,000 people. 2. The English feared Spain was expanding northward. James Oglethorpe wanted a colony that would protect debtors. Notetaking Study Guide Mason-Dixon Line: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia; coastal area called the Tidewater; after the American Revolution, it was the dividing line between northern states where slavery was abolished and southern states where slavery persisted; Virginia: the number of settlers grew from 10,000 to 40,000; the number of Native Americans shrank from 8,000 to 2,000; most of the good farmland near the coast; moved inland and fought with Native Americans over farmland; Nathaniel Bacon led an attack on Native Americans and burned Jamestown. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
After Bacon died, the governor hanged 23 followers, but it did not stop settlers from taking Native American lands; Maryland: Catholics could live safely; Catholic and Protestant settlers; Act of Toleration; all Christians, adult male Christians the right to vote and hold office, religious toleration in North America; Carolinas: Settlers from Virginia moved south beyond the colony’s borders and King Charles II granted a charter for a new colony to be established there; it lacked harbors and rivers for ships; tobacco, lumber; quickly, sugar, rice, slave labor; Georgia: Spain was expanding its Florida colony northward; and other wealthy Englishmen wanted a colony that would protect debtors from imprisonment; Change in the Southern Colonies: The Southern Colonies developed two distinct ways of life; The Tidewater Region: plantations; slaveholders, enslaved people; wealthy people, poor people; The Backcountry: poor roads and long distances; worked in the fields with men and boys; did not care about them
Chapter 3 Section 5 Checkpoint St. Augustine A Reading Strategy Students should underline “The Spanish used Native Americans to tend their horses.”
Checkpoint Texas: Father Eusebio Francisco Kino; California coast: Junípero Serra OL Vocabulary Builder to stick firmly to a surface or object
Checkpoint They died from poor living conditions and European diseases. Check Your Progress 1. They offered protection and land to Africans who escaped to Florida in exchange for defending the colony. 2. Presidios were military posts, built to defend the missions. Notetaking Study Guide Spanish Colonies on the Borderlands: Florida; Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California; St. Augustine: 1565; Spain feared that France might take over the area; First permanent European settlement in the United States; the Spanish offered protection and land to enslaved Africans who escaped to Florida and helped defend the colony; New Mexico: find gold, convert Native Americans, and establish a permanent colony; Santa Fe; look after the horses, spread the skill of horseback riding from one Native American group to another; Native Americans drove out the Spanish, who did not return for 10 years; Spanish Missions: Texas and Arizona: Father Eusebio Francisco Kino; Rio Grande; San Antonio; California coast: 1769; Junípero Serra; San Diego, San Francisco, Los Angeles; the Spanish founded almost 20 missions; Life in Spanish Missions: Positive Aspects: overworked; five to eight hours a day, Sundays or holidays; Negative Aspects: control over their lives; punished them if they violated mission rules; poor living conditions and European diseases
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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right to government themselves; manage their own affairs
Chapter 3 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. C, 3. D, 4. A A 1. B, 2. A, 3. C
Chapter 3 Notetaking Study Guide New England Colonies: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island; Middle Colonies: New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania; Southern Colonies: Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, Georgia; Economic opportunity: many New England colonists turned from farming to fishing; Pennsylvania was called America’s breadbasket; plantation, Southern, slavery; English power: all Dutch land in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York; New Netherland, New York; English colonists moved onto Native American lands; keep the Spanish from moving northward from Florida; Freedom of religion: Pilgrims, Plymouth; Puritans, Massachusetts; Roger Williams’s, Thomas Hooker’s, John Wheelright’s; Quakers, Pennsylvania, Delaware; Maryland, Catholics could live safely; Freedom of government: House of Burgesses, representative government; Mayflower Compact, the 6
Chapter 4 Section 1 Checkpoint requiring that the monarchy gain Parliament’s consent before raising taxes A Reading Strategy Therefore; However
Checkpoint women, Native Americans, Africans Checkpoint John Peter Zenger Checkpoint to make sure that the colonies benefited the parent country economically Check Your Progress 1. It was the first document to limit the monarch’s power. 2. They felt that the Navigation Acts benefited England too much and limited the chance to make money in foreign markets. Notetaking Study Guide The English Parliamentary Tradition: 1215, Magna Carta; an English ruler’s power, impose taxes; private property, trial by jury; 1689, English Bill of Rights, trial by jury, habeas corpus, no monarch could levy taxes or raise an army without the consent of Parliament; Colonial Self-Government: House of Burgesses, General Court, Pennsylvania, General Assembly had the right to make laws, 1760, legislature; Freedom of the Press: he published articles criticizing the governor, libel, not guilty, the press can publish the truth without restriction or punishment; Regulating Trade: go through England first; arrive in British ships; sugar and tobacco and other key products only to England; it created a sure market for goods and promoted shipbuilding in the colonies; they felt the laws favored England and that they could make more money trading with other countries directly
Chapter 4 Section 2 Checkpoint Large families could perform the work that needed to be done to survive independently. Vocabulary Builder to evaluate, to examine, to judge or determine worth or quality Checkpoint By the age of seven, children were expected to work to help their families. A Reading Strategy Sample Question: How did being poor in the colonies compare to being poor in England? Sample Answer: In England, the poor usually stayed poor. In the colonies, the poor could become middle class.
Checkpoint The gentry were wealthy and powerful; the middle classes were not wealthy and did not have much public power. Check Your Progress 1. Women were expected to marry a man selected by their parents. They took care of the children and also performed household and farm labor. 2. Poor people could buy land and become part of the middle class; indentured servants could become part of the middle class after the end of their service contract.
Step 1: Jamestown: barely survived its first year because colonists did not grow enough crops and ran out of food; John Smith drew up new rules, including “He who works not, eats not”; when John Smith returned to England, the settlers ran out of food; Plymouth: The Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth too late to plant crops and ran out of food; Native Americans showed them how to grow native plants; Step 2: New England: Thin, rocky soil made farming difficult. People made their living in many ways, including fishing and making goods; Middle Colonies: Fertile soil made farming easier than in New England. Farmers grew a surplus, including tobacco and wheat; Southern Colonies: Swampy lowlands and long growing season made farming easy; Rice-growing and tobacco-growing depended on slave labor; Step 3: Answers will vary, but students’ sentences may be similar to the following: The ability of English colonists to sustain themselves in North America depended on such factors as when they arrived, where they lived, what the land was like, and what skills they developed. For example, (students should cite one of the following examples:) many colonists in Jamestown were unable to sustain themselves and died, because they did not work hard and failed to grow enough crops; the Pilgrims’ ability to sustain themselves was weakened because they did not arrive in time to grow enough food for winter, but their ability improved when Native Americans taught them the skills of growing native crops; in New England, many people had to switch to fishing, because the thin, rocky soil made farming difficult; in the Middle Colonies, English colonists had an easier time sustaining themselves because the soil was more fertile than in New England; in the Southern Colonies, plantations had a long growing season, and they utilized slaved labor to do most of the farm work.
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Notetaking Study Guide I. The Family in Colonial Times: farms; self-sufficient; single people; II. Men, Women, and Children: Men: fulfill home duties, controlled a family’s income and property, represented family in public life; Women: childcare; cooking, laundry, spinning; milking, churning, preserving food; Children: were allowed to play; were expected to work to help the family; someone who learned a trade by working for and living with someone in that trade; III. Social Classes: move from a lower class to a higher class; Classes in Colonial America: The Gentry: upper; wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, royal officials, lawyers; The Middle Class: majority; small planters, independent farmers, artisans; acquiring property; Indentured Servants: contract, work for someone for 4 to 10 years, passage to America; freed and given land, tools, and clothes; Free African Americans: property; vote, sit on juries
Chapter 4 Section 3 Checkpoint New England, the West Indies, West Africa A Reading Strategy Students should underline “Indentured servants were temporary, and their number decreased, Africans could be enslaved for life.”
Vocabulary Builder events, incidents Checkpoint Plantations needed large numbers of workers to grow and harvest tobacco and rice.
Checkpoint speaking Gullah, making crafts, using drum rhythms in music Check Your Progress 1. Most enslaved Africans did work on plantations, such as those growing rice or tobacco. 2. The slave codes reinforced the ideas that enslaved Africans had few rights and were not equal to white colonists. Notetaking Study Guide The Atlantic Slave Trade: Spanish, Portuguese; British, Dutch, French; the African interior, West African; the brutal voyage from Africa to the West Indies; 15, 20; Three Parts of the Triangular Trade: 1. fish and lumber, the West Indies; sugar and molasses; 2. rum and guns, West Africa; captive Africans; 3. West Africa, the West Indies, slaves, molasses; Slavery in the Colonies: many workers were needed to grow tobacco and other crops, and there were fewer indentured servants; not successful and did not last long; the first serious slave revolt took place; led another slave revolt; restrict the rights and activities of slaves; African Cultural Influences: 10; they saw few white colonists; a dialect that combines English and several African languages; furniture making, wood carving, and quilt making; drums, the banjo; African folktales
Chapter 4 Section 4 Checkpoint religion, reading, writing, arithmetic Vocabulary Builder An academic style is scholarly and reflects education or formal learning. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Checkpoint joys and hardships of life in Puritan New England Checkpoint a decline in strict religious commitment A Reading Strategy Students should underline “if a monarch violates these rights,” and circle “citizens should overthrow the monarch.”
Checkpoint They are rights that belong to every human from birth and cannot be taken away. Check Your Progress 1. The Great Awakening focused on increasing people’s commitment to leading a religious life. 2. People have natural rights that cannot be taken away; government exists to protect these rights; the powers of government should be separated. Notetaking Study Guide The Importance of Education: public; religion, reading, writing, arithmetic; schools that women opened in their homes to teach boys and girls; Roots of American Literature: published poet; life in Puritan New England; an enslaved African in Boston who published her first poem at the age of 14; Pennsylvania Gazette, Poor Richard’s Almanack; The Great Awakening: Cause: rules on religion had become less strict; Effect: an emotion-packed Christian movement that swept through the colonies; Cause: new churches; Effect: people became more tolerant of different religions; The Enlightenment: John Locke: rights that belong to every human being from birth and cannot be taken away; the monarch violates people’s natural rights; Montesquieu: division of government into separate branches; legislative, executive, judicial
Chapter 4 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. D, 3. A, 4. C A 1. C, 2. A, 3. B
Step 1 Plantation System: Needed many workers to harvest tobacco and rice; Indentured Servants: Were not workers for life and their numbers decreased; Racism: Made people feel they had the right to enslave others; Step 2 Probable order: 2, 3, 1; Racism made slavery possible. Without these feelings of superiority, people could not have owned slaves. Step 3 Answers will vary, but students should complete the topic sentence and support their positions with information from steps 1 and 2. Sample response: The main reason that slavery took root in the colonies was racism. The white colonists felt superior to the captive Africans. They felt they had the right to enslave these captives. Slavery could not have existed without strong racism.
Chapter 4 Notetaking Study Guide Ideas that Shaped the Colonies: Rights: rights; a majority of white men; legislatures; freedom of the press; people had natural rights that could not be taken away; Education: reading, writing, arithmetic, Harvard College, 1638; Religion: Christian, encouraged people to commit themselves to religion; Racism: slavery; Laws that Shaped the Colonies: Navigation Acts: 1651, make sure
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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that the colonies served the economic needs of England; Slave Codes: limit the rights of enslaved Africans; Economic Systems that Shaped the Colonies: Plantations: many workers to harvest crops and indentured servants became less common; Triangular Trade: the colonies, the West Indies, West Africa, many Africans being enslaved in the colonies; Roles that Shaped the Colonies: Men: support the family financially, represent the family in public life; Women: had children and performed domestic responsibilities; Children: had to work by the age of seven; Social Classes: the gentry, the middle class, indentured servants, and free African Americans
Unit 1 Pulling It Together Activity
Chapter 5 Section 1 Vocabulary Builder You agree to help them. Checkpoint Both countries claimed the Ohio River valley as their territory, and France began to build forts to back their claim. A Reading Strategy Fighters hide during an ambush; people could hide in the woods or behind bushes.
Checkpoint Braddock was not familiar with fighting styles used in the wilderness by Native Americans. Checkpoint Britain captured the fort at Louisbourg and Fort Duquesne. 8
Notetaking Study Guide Competing Empires: The French and Indian War Begins: Ohio River valley; George Washington, Duquesne; surrender; The Albany Congress: Iroquois; Benjamin Franklin; western settlement, Native Americans; armies, taxes; rejected; Early British Defeats: Edward Braddock; Seven Years’ War; Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry; The British Turn the Tide: William Pitt; Fort Duquesne; Quebec, Montreal; Britain’s new territories: French Canada, most French territories east of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida; Spain’s new territories: New Orleans and all French territory west of the Mississippi
Chapter 5 Section 2 Vocabulary Builder They were afraid they would continue to lose more of their lands to the settlers. Checkpoint Britain wanted to avoid further wars with the Native Americans. Checkpoint Colonists were forced to house British soldiers and give them food and necessities. Checkpoint They boycotted British goods. A Reading Strategy Students should underline “Colonists boycotted British goods to protest this violation of their rights.” Students should circle “Merchants in Britain suffered from the boycott. They pressured Parliament to repeal the Townshend duties.”
Checkpoint Committee of Correspondence Check Your Progress 1. Britain was in debt after the French and Indian War. The Sugar Act was a way to raise money, while the Quartering Act was a way to save it. 2. The Committee helped keep the colonists informed about British actions and helped unify their viewpoint. Notetaking Study Guide 1754−1763: the French and Indian War; debt; 1763: Proclamation of 1763; ignored; 1764: the Sugar Act, duty, smugglers; 1765: Quartering Act; Stamp Act; treason; boycotted; 1766: Stamp Act, Declaratory Act; 1767: Townshend Acts; writs of assistance; 1770: tea, Parliament’s right to tax the colonies, Boston Massacre, committees of correspondence
Chapter 5 Section 3 Checkpoint It prevented them from selling Dutch tea at a cheaper price. Vocabulary Builder bar Checkpoint The laws closed the port of Boston, increased the powers of the royal governor, decreased
Government: Colonial legislatures: House of Burgesses, the General Court; Colonial documents: Mayflower Compact, Penn’s Frame of Government for Pennsylvania; Religion: Religions that came to the colonies: English Separatists known as Pilgrims, the Puritans, Quakers, Catholics; Religious tolerance: Pennsylvania and Delaware (Quakers); Maryland (Catholics); New Colonies: New England Colonies: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut; Middle Colonies: New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania; Southern Colonies: Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia; Economic Developments: New England: fishing, shipbuilding, producing other goods; Middle Colonies: small farms and manufacturing; Southern Colonies: large plantations, poor backcountry farms, slavery; How the Colonists’ Way of Life Was Rooted in England’s Past: England’s Political Traditions: Monarchy, Parliamentary tradition of representative government, Magna Carta and limited government; English Bill of Rights; England’s Religion: Church of England, Persecution of Separatists, Puritans, Quakers, Catholics, and others who did not follow the Church of England; England’s Economic Control: Mercantilism: Colonies expected to supply raw materials and act as a market for manufactured British goods; Navigation Acts: England regulated the shipping and selling of goods; fewer economic opportunities; Colonies paid taxes to England
Check Your Progress 1. a council would have authority over western settlements, as well as the power to organize armies and collect taxes to pay war expenses; 2. William Pitt sent better generals, and the Iroquois became British allies.
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the power of colonial self-government, and strengthened the Quartering Act. A Reading Strategy Students should place:
1 beside “the governor of Massachusetts sent . . .” 2 beside “Paul Revere and William Dawes rode. . .” 3 beside “The British soldiers and the minutemen had . . .”
Chapter 5 Assessment
4 beside “ . . . the shot heard round the world was fired.”
OL 1. B, 2. C, 3. B, 4. A A 1. C, 2. A, 3. C
5 beside “In nearby Concord, . . .”
Step 1: Who Supported Independence?: Patriots; Who Did Not Support Independence?: Loyalists; Step 2: Those Who Supported Independence: They were workers, farmers, and merchants who were most affected by the new taxes. They had a lot to gain if the colonists won their independence; Those Who Did Not Support Independence: They were wealthy landowners or owed their government positions and status in society to the British Crown. They worried about what would happen to their property if a new government came to power. Step 3: Answers will vary, but students should complete the topic sentence and support their answers with information from steps 1 and 2.
Britain: Olive Branch Petition, colonists were still loyal to the king; colonists were ready to die for freedom; Bunker Hill: attack, ammunition; stand up to professional soldiers; Canada: Richard Montgomery, Benedict Arnold, Quebec
Chapter 5 Section 4 OL Vocabulary Builder a diplomat; Because they represent our government, diplomats must behave with sensitivity and skill. They are the face of our people. A Reading Strategy Sample question: Who fought on the Loyalist side? Sample answer: Those with property and government officials, enslaved Africans, Native Americans
Checkpoint Patriots, Loyalists Checkpoint The cannons overlooking the city made it impossible for the British to defend Boston, so they left. Check Your Progress 1. They formed an army, made George Washington the commander of the army, and printed money to pay for the war. 2. It proved that the Patriots could successfully fight the British, and it gave them confidence. Notetaking Study Guide Second Continental Congress: Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Patrick Henry; formed a Continental army, chose George Washington as commander, printed paper money to pay war expenses; Colonists Divided: Patriots, Loyalists; Fort Ticonderoga: Ethan Allen, Green Mountain Boys, cannons; Petitions to OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Chapter 5 Notetaking Study Guide The Path to Revolution Result of the French and Indian War: Appalachian Mountains, avoid more costly wars with Native Americans; taxes or duties, British soldiers stationed in the colonies; boycotts; Cause and Effects of the Tea Act: closing ports and dumping tea into the Boston Harbor; passing the Intolerable Acts; a trained militia; Lexington, Massachusetts; Preparing for War: Continental army, George Washington; Ticonderoga; that they were willing to die fighting for their freedom, Results of Early Battles: lost, ammunition; blockade, mercenaries; British
Chapter 6 Section 1 A Reading Strategy Students should underline “In early 1776,” “beginning,” “In May 1776,” and “then.”
Checkpoint Common Sense Vocabulary Builder showing the results of careful thinking Checkpoint to explain why the document is being written Checkpoint The Declaration of Independence was signed. Check Your Progress 1. the publication and wide distribution of Common Sense; Richard Henry Lee’s resolution on the right of the colonies to be free; 2. The colonists now had to fight to gain the freedom they had declared. Notetaking Study Guide A Call for Independence: January 1776: Common Sense; Thomas Paine, rule by kings was ridiculous; 500,000 copies distributed, support for independence strengthened in Congress; May 1776: statement that proclaimed that the colonies
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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should be free; Congress decided to draw up a statement of separation from Britain; Thomas Jefferson chosen to write the Declaration of Independence; The Declaration of Independence: Preamble: to explain the need for independence; Declaration of Natural Rights: People’s rights cannot be taken away; The government must protect people’s rights; When the government fails to protect people’s rights, the people should change or replace the government; List of Grievances: The British government, especially King George III, has not shown concern for the colonists’ well-being; The colonists must have the right to representation; Wrongs done to the colonists are: refusing to allow new legislators to be elected and to pass naturalization laws, deciding alone a judge’s tenure, forcing the quartering of soldiers, and hiring mercenaries; Resolution of Independence: The colonists say they are free; The colonists have proved their case; The colonies can now wage war, make treaties, and trade on their own; Written by: Thomas Jefferson; Date Approved: July 4, 1776; Date signed: August 2, 1776; Immediate Result: Colonists prepare to go to war for their freedom; Lasting result: People remain inspired by the notion that “all men are created equal.”
foreign support; Valley Forge: winter of 1777–1778; American soldiers suffered terribly; The army gathered its strength for the coming battles; Important People: Sir William Howe: British general who forced Washington’s troops to retreat during the summer of 1776; led British during the worst days of the war for Patriots; Nathan Hale: American spy, caught by the British and put to death; showed the highest level of commitment to freedom; Thomas Paine: wrote The Crisis; helped soldiers stay committed to the cause of freedom; George Washington: commanded the Patriot forces in key battles; great military leader and an inspiring hero; John Burgoyne: British general who planned to cut off New England; forced to surrender at Saratoga; Horatio Gates: American general who surrounded Burgoyne at Saratoga; victory at Saratoga was a major turning point in the war; Marquis de Lafayette: high-ranking officer from France who volunteered to help Americans; helped Washington win key battles; Thaddeus Kosciusko: engineer from Poland who took charge building fortifications at West Point; Casimir Pulaski: led and trained Patriot cavalry; Baron von Steuben: helped train the Continental army; taught soldiers how to march, improve their aim, attack with bayonets
Chapter 6 Section 2 Checkpoint They had fewer troops and were not as experienced as the British. Checkpoint He wanted to boost the soldiers’ morale, and remind Americans to remain devoted to the cause of freedom. A Reading Strategy Winning the battle at Saratoga had many important and positive effects on the Americans.
Checkpoint He taught American recruits how to march, aim, and attack with bayonets. Checkpoint They needed food, clothing, medicine, and housing. Check Your Progress 1. The Battle of Saratoga was a major turning point. It secured New England, gave the troops new confidence, and proved to Europe that the Americans could win. 2. France, Spain, and the Netherlands joined the Americans, causing Britain to focus on more than one front. Individuals also helped Americans become better prepared to fight. Notetaking Study Guide Important Battles and Places: New York State: summer of 1776; American forces had to keep retreating; Patriot spirits became very low, and some soldiers deserted; Trenton: December 26, 1776; Washington led 2,400 men in a surprise attack; The victory lifted morale, and many Hessian mercenaries were captured; Saratoga: October 17, 1777; Americans surrounded the British, forcing Burgoyne to surrender; Considered a turning point in the war, gave Americans control of New England, proved they could win, led to 10
Checkpoint He saw many African Americans joining the British cause after they were promised freedom. A Reading Strategy Students should circle “food shortages, enemy attacks, and increased responsibilities in areas in which they usually had little involvement.”
Checkpoint They printed money known as continentals, which eventually became worthless. Checkpoint Governor de Gálvez provided money, arms, and a safe harbor. Plus, he attacked British forts on the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico. “Havana’s Ladies” gave millions of dollars to the Americans. Checkpoint John Paul Jones Check Your Progress 1. With increased responsibilities, women had many new opportunities opened to them. 2. He was sent by Virginia to capture British forts west of the Appalachian Mountains, taking three posts from the British and their Native American allies. Notetaking Study Guide African Americans in the War: Many African Americans join the British effort; to accept African American soldiers; The War at Home: Women take over traditional male roles: plant and harvest crops and take care of livestock; take over their husbands’ businesses; take care of the wounded; Women have new confidence and opportunities open to them; Congress has little money to pay for war: States have no money to help pay for the war; Congress prints more and more continentals; Printed money becomes nearly worthless; Fighting in the West: Native Americans choose British side: George Rogers Clark is sent to attack forts west of the Appalachians that are controlled by the
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British and the Indians; He captures three key forts; Spain joins American side: Bernardo de Gálvez provides money, weapons, a safe harbor, and attacks on British forts on the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico; “Havana’s Ladies” give millions of dollars to the American war effort; The War at Sea: Small American navy uses hitand-run attacks; Bonhomme Richard, Serapis; John Paul Jones; privateers
Chapter 6 Section 4 Checkpoint Cornwallis moved his troops to the peninsula of Yorktown. Checkpoint Treaty of Paris Checkpoint knowledge of geography and local supply lines, patriotism, help from allies, great leaders Checkpoint equality and liberty
Check Your Progress 1. The British planned to march through the South, taking key cities. They were successful in Georgia and in South Carolina, and had reached North Carolina under the leadership of Cornwallis. 2. America’s success in winning its freedom gave independence movements in other countries a successful model to follow. Notetaking Study Guide The End of the War: British march north: Savannah; Charles Town; Bands of Loyalists roamed the South, burning, plundering, and massacring; Traitor Benedict Arnold also led Loyalist attacks on Virginia; Americans fight back: 1. small bands of fighters who made surprise hit-and-run attacks; Francis Marion “the Swamp Fox”; 2. October 1870; Kings Mountain, South Carolina; Some 900 frontier fighters defeated British troops and Loyalists atop Kings Mountain; 3. Continental army was split in two. Greene led 1,200 men into eastern South Carolina, and General Daniel Morgan had 800 men in the west. Morgan won Battle of Cowpens; British go to Virginia: Yorktown peninsula; Cornwallis expected help from the British fleet; French ships chased away the British ships, and Washington cut off any land escape. Trapped, Cornwallis was forced to surrender; Peace Process: Paris; 1782; Britain agreed that the United States was an independent country with established borders; The United States agreed to restore rights and property taken from Loyalists during the war; Congress approved the treaty on April 15, 1783; Why the Americans Won: 1. They fought on land they knew, and they had local supply lines. 2. They were inspired by feelings of patriotism. 3. They had assistance from other countries. 4. They had great leaders.
Chapter 6 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. B, 3. A A 1. C, 2. A, 3. A
OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Step 1: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense; The Virginia Resolution; The Declaration of Independence; Thomas Paine’s The Crisis; The Treaty of Paris; Step 2: Answers should be similar to the following: Common Sense; to explain why rule by a king was ridiculous; hundreds of thousands of people were inspired by the words; The Virginia Resolution: to proclaim the right of the United States to be free; the Continental Congress decided to draft a formal statement declaring separation from Britain; The Declaration of Independence: to state the reasons why the colonists had to declare separation from Britain; the Patriots had to go to war to claim their independence; The Crisis: to remind everyone of the importance of fighting for freedom; American troops’ spirits were lifted during these difficult times; Treaty of Paris: to state terms of peace between Britain and the United States; Britain admitted American independence and borders were established for the new country; Step 3: Answers will vary, but students’ topic sentence and supporting sentences may be similar to the following: During the American Revolution, the written word was used to support, declare, and ensure the success of the American drive for equality and freedom. Materials written by individuals like Thomas Paine reached hundreds of thousands of people with their strong messages about the need for freedom. Official documents logically stated the American position for the world to understand. Finally, the Treaty of Paris ensured that American independence would be protected.
Chapter 6 Notetaking Study Guide The colonists gathered support for independence: published Common Sense; proposed the Virginia Resolution to Congress; The colonists declared their freedom: write a formal statement of separation from Britain; Thomas Jefferson; the Declaration of Independence; Preamble— gave the reason for writing the Declaration; Protection of Natural Rights—stated colonists’ beliefs about why government can be rejected; List of Grievances— detailed wrongs committed by the British monarch King George III; Resolution of Independence—stated that the colonists declared independence from Britain; The colonists fought and won the war for freedom: the Middle States; October 1777, Saratoga, New York; France, Spain, the Netherlands; Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben; guerrilla, the Swamp Fox, Nathanael Greene; October 1781, Yorktown, Virginia; The British agreed that the colonists were free and independent: 1782, Paris; Britain declared the independence of the United States; The borders of the United States were established; The United States agreed to return Loyalists’ land and property; April 15, 1783
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Chapter 7 Section 1 A Vocabulary Builder to limit or keep to a small amount
Checkpoint One of the following: More power was given to the legislature than to the governor, more people could vote, some constitutions had bills of rights.
Notetaking Study Guide Solution Provided by the Virginia Plan three, Congress; Solution Reached After a Vote one; Solution Provided by the Virginia Plan population; Solution Provided by the New Jersey Plan equal; Solution Reached by the Great Compromise Representatives, population, Senate, Roger Sherman; Solution People
Checkpoint Two of the following: the national government had only one branch, there was a onehouse legislature, limited powers, to pass laws, deal with foreign nations and Native Americans, make war and peace, coin or borrow money, and run a post office
OL Vocabulary Builder The Federalists wanted the states to give up more power to the national government.
Checkpoint Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A Reading Strategy Changes were needed in the organization of the national government.
Checkpoint Two of the following: winning independence, signing a treaty with Britain, and creating rules for settling new territories
Checkpoint The national government needed more powers for the Union to survive.
Check Your Progress 1. The British government abused its powers in the colonies; 2. Two of the following: trade and tax issues between states hurt the economy, the national government was too weak to stop public unrest, the national government had little money because it could not collect taxes
Chapter 7 Section 3
Checkpoint First: Delaware; Last: Rhode Island Checkpoint freedom of religion, speech, and the press Check Your Progress 1. They felt the new Constitution had gone too far; 2. It protects against unfair use of government power.
Chapter 7 Section 2
Chapter 7 Assessment
OL 1. A, 2. D, 3. C A 1. B, 2. C, 3. A
A Reading Strategy circle: A judicial branch would
consist of a system of courts to settle disputes involving national issues; An executive branch would carry out the laws; The executive branch would have one chief executive, or the President. Congress would make up the legislative branch. Checkpoint judicial branch, executive branch, legislative branch Checkpoint House of Representatives, Senate Checkpoint whether slaves should count toward a state’s representation in the House, whether the buying and selling of slaves should be banned Checkpoint Gouverneur Morris Check Your Progress 1. to change the Articles of Confederation, 2. They emphasized that its power came from the people, not the states. 12
Step 1: Successes: Two of the following: successful war for independence from Great Britain, negotiated treaty to end the war, passed laws (Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787) which allowed for the orderly settlement of western lands; Failures: Two of the following: trade and tax issues between states hurt the economy; the national government was too weak to stop public unrest, such as Shays’ Rebellion; it had little money because it could not collect taxes; the national government could not enforce the laws it passed. Step 2: Answers will vary, but should be logical conclusions based on the strengths and weaknesses listed in Step 1. Step 3: Answers will vary, but students should complete the topic sentence and support their positions with information from steps 1 and 2. Answers should explain what these successes and failures tell about the government under the Articles.
Notetaking Study Guide Government by the States Problems the Colonists had with Colonial Government Parliament central, colonial; Main Characteristics of the State Governments state governors limited; voting more; individual rights bills, rights; National Government under the Articles of Confederation Main Characteristics executive, judicial; Congress; 9; dealing with foreign nations and Native Americans outside the 13 states; making laws; declaring war; coining or borrowing money; running a postal service; Strengths independence; Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787; trade, taxes; Shays’ Rebellion
Notetaking Study Guide Federalists Versus Antifederalists Federalists Leaders James Madison, Alexander Hamilton; Position on the new Constitution supported it; Main argument for Position strong; Antifederalists Leaders George Mason; Position on the new Constitution against it; Arguments for Position It weakened state power; It had no bill of rights; The Ratification Debate 9, large, powerful, New York; Bill of Rights federal government, religion, speech, the press, bear arms, forcing citizens to keep troops in their homes, unreasonable searches of their homes, seizure of their property, accused of crimes and brought to trial, federal government, Constitution
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Chapter 7 Notetaking Study Guide Articles of Confederation Form of government one, nine; Limited Government central, states, Congress; Constitutional Convention of 1787 Virginia Plan executive, legislative, judicial, two, population, people, seats; New Jersey Plan single, equal, raise money, regulate commerce; The Great Compromise House of Representatives, population, Senate, two; The ThreeFifths Compromise representatives, vote; person
Constitution Notetaking Study Guide Amendments 11–18: 12th: 1804, election of President and Vice President, no; 13th: 1865, slavery and involuntary servitude, no; 14th: 1868, rights of citizens, no; 15th: 1870, right to vote—race, color, servitude, no; 16th: 1913, income tax, yes; 17th: 1913, popular election of senators, no; 18th: 1919 prohibition of alcoholic beverages, no Amendments 19–27: 20th: 1933, presidential terms, sessions of Congress, death or disqualification of President-elect, yes; 21st: 1933, repeal of prohibition, yes; 22nd: 1951, presidential tenure, no; 23rd: 1961, presidential electors for the District of Columbia, yes; 24th: 1964, right to vote in federal election--taxes, no; 25th: 1967, presidential succession, vice-presidential vacancy, presidential inability, yes; 26th: 1971, right to vote—age, yes; 27th: 1992, congressional pay, no
OL Vocabulary Builder A government that consists of individuals who are elected by the people would seek to serve the interests of the people. A Reading Strategy Students should underline Elections should be held frequently.
Checkpoint Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights Checkpoint requires states to honor one another’s laws, sets up a system for admitting new states Checkpoint Three of the following: popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism, republicanism, individual rights Check Your Progress 1. The powers of government must be clearly defined and divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches; 2. the powers and limits on the three branches of government Constitution Notetaking Study Guide Ideas from Rome and England: elected representatives, dictatorship, Magna Carta, Bill of Rights, rights; Ideas from the Enlightenment: 1. Every individual has natural rights, 2. Government is an agreement between the ruler and the ruled; to keep one person or group from gaining too much power; Articles of the Constitution: Article 1 establishes the powers and limits of Congress; Article 3 establishes the powers and limits of the courts; Article 4 requires states to honor one another’s laws and sets OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
system for admitting new states; Article 5 provides a process to amend the Constitution; Article 6 states that the Constitution is the “supreme law of the land”; Article 7 sets up procedure for states to ratify the Constitution; Seven Principles of the Constitution: Popular Sovereignty: the people are the primary source of the government’s power; Limited Government: states that the government has only those powers given to it by the Constitution; Separation of Powers: divides the power of government into three branches; Checks and Balances: Each branch of government limits the actions of the other two; Federalism: establishes a division of power between the federal government and the states; Republicanism: elected representatives carry out the citizens’ will; Individual Rights: Rights such as freedom of speech and religion are protected by the Constitution.
Citizenship Handbook, Summary 2 Vocabulary Builder Sample answer: a list of issues or topics to be discussed Checkpoint Senate, House of Representatives Checkpoint electoral college A Reading Strategy underline: Most cases are tried under state jurisdiction because they involve state laws.
Checkpoint acts of a President, laws passed by Congress Check Your Progress 1. President, Vice President, Cabinet, executive departments and agencies; 2. The President nominates a justice for the Supreme Court. Then, the appointment must be approved by Congress. Branches of Government Notetaking Study Guide The Legislative Branch The Senate six years, Vice President; House of Representatives 435, people of their district, two years; Powers of Congress 2. taxes, 3. money, 5. weights and measures, 6. war; The Executive Branch Duties: laws, the national government; Head executive: President, Other members: departments, agencies; Length of President’s term: 4 years; System by which President is elected: electoral college; The Judicial Branch Lower Courts 1. evidence, judge, jury; 2. appeal; 3. decide whether the lower court judges interpreted and applied the law correctly; 4. the power to hear and decide cases; The Supreme Court chief justice and eight associate justices, President; Congress; until they retire, resign, or die; Serve as final court of appeals; Less than 100; Power to decide what the Constitution means; acts of the President and the laws passed by Congress
Citizenship Handbook, Summary 3 Vocabulary Builder to leave something out Checkpoint the Bill of Rights A Reading Strategy underline: The colonial experience inspired the First Amendment; draw arrows to The Framers drafted the First Amendment because they wanted to end such
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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(religious) disputes; and The Framers remembered that King George III and Parliament had ignored colonists’ petitions protesting the Stamp Act.
the most powerful because it was the one most directly selected by the citizens.
OL Vocabulary Builder Sample answers: disagreement or refusal
Citizenship Handbook, Notetaking Study Guide
Checkpoint religion, speech, press, peaceful assembly, government petition Check Your Progress 1. through actions of the state legislatures or through the actions of state conventions; 2. Some religious leaders were driven from their communities because of disputes with community leaders over religious issues. Amending the Constitution Notetaking Study Guide Amendment Process Proposing Amendments 1. House and Senate propose amendment and vote for a change; Ratifying Amendments 1. Vote of state legislatures, 2. Vote at state conventions; The Bill of Rights First Amendment: speech, press, assembly; Second Amendment: bear arms; Third Amendment: quartering, troops; Fourth Amendment: search, seizure; Fifth Amendment: crimes; Sixth Amendment: trial, jury; Seventh Amendment: trial, jury, civil; Eighth Amendment: excessive bail, punishment; Ninth Amendment: rights, those listed in the Constitution; Tenth Amendment: powers, given to the federal government
Citizenship Handbook, Summary 4 Checkpoint counties, cities, towns A Reading Strategy draw an arrow to Over the years, federal and state laws have identified other rights.
Checkpoint National Rifle Association, Sierra Club
Governments and Citizens Notetaking Study Guide State Government governor, legislature, judiciary; regulate trade within state, maintain schools, establish local governments, make laws about marriage and divorce, conduct elections, provide for public safety Local Government city, town; education; teachers, firefighters, police officers, garbage collectors; roads, hospitals; Citizenship citizen; 1. born in the United States, 2. have a parent who is a citizen, 3. be 18 or younger when parents are naturalized; Naturalization; 1. live in the United States for five years, 2. apply for citizenship, 3. take citizenship exam, 4. undergo interviews, 5. take a citizenship oath; law; voting, society
Citizenship Handbook, Assessment OL 1. C, 2. A, 3. D A 1. B, 2. A, 3. B
Step 1: Executive: President; Legislative: elected by voters in each state or district; Judicial: Supreme Court, appointed by President, approved by Congress; Step 2: Legislative; Step 3: Students should conclude that the Framers of the Constitution made the legislative branch 14
Unit 2 Pulling It Together Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens From the Bill of Rights: trial by jury and equal treatment before the law, right to bear arms, freedom from the government or troops entering homes without cause; Civic Responsibilities: voting, obeying laws, helping solve problems in the community; Responsibilities of Government Federal: regulating trade, levying taxes, enforcing federal laws, reviewing laws and court decisions to make sure they are constitutional; State: protecting property, regulating business, building and maintaining highways, operating state parks, supervising public education; Local: hiring teachers/ firefighters/police officers/garbage collectors, maintaining local roads and hospitals, providing sewers and water, overseeing parks and recreational facilities, conducting safety inspections
Chapter 8 Section 1 Checkpoint Alexander Hamilton was Treasury Secretary, Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State, Henry Knox was Secretary of War, and Edmund Randolph was Attorney General. Checkpoint bonds Vocabulary Builder disagreement about constitutional interpretation Checkpoint strict, loose Checkpoint a new tax on whiskey Check Your Progress 1. An economic crisis over war debt and the Whiskey Rebellion; 2. Pay all state and federal debts in full, create a national bank, raise money with a tariff. Notetaking Study Guide The first job of the President and Congress: to put a working government in place; Executive Branch: Treasury, State, and War; secretary, attorney general; Cabinet; Judicial Branch: Judiciary Act of 1789, 3, district; to hear appeals from the state courts; Hamilton’s Financial Plan bonds; Part 1 debts,
Check Your Progress 1. state and local governments; 2. the Ninth Amendment
The Foundation of Strong Government Ideas Behind the Constitution: republic; representatives; Magna Carta, Bill of Rights; John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu; Structure of the Constitution: Preamble; executive, judicial, legislative; limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, republicanism, individual rights; Amendments to the Constitution: state legislatures, state conventions; the Bill of Rights; the freedoms guaranteed to all citizens; Ninth Amendment; State and Local Government: constitution, branches of government; trade, marriage, elections, safety; Local
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southerners, state; Southerners would support Hamilton’s plan, and the government would build the new capital in the South; Part 2: National Bank; government, Constitution; strict/loose, loose/strict, approved; Part 3: raise money, foreign competition; North, hurt; opposed; The Whiskey Rebellion, taxed, revolt, strength, militia
Chapter 8 Section 2 Checkpoint factions A Reading Strategy Questions and answers will vary, but they should reflect an understanding of the differences between the two parties.
Checkpoint Republicans: southern planters and northern artisans and farmers; Federalists: merchants, other property owners, and workers with jobs in manufacturing or trade Checkpoint John Adams
Check Your Progress 1. because they believed leaders should represent the interest of the entire nation, not just selfish local or personal interests; 2. The Federalists supported a strong national government and the Republicans believed the national government was too powerful. Notetaking Study Guide The Birth of Political Parties the entire nation, factions; The Two Parties Federalists Leaders Alexander Hamilton; Supporters property owners, workers in manufacturing and trade; Position on state vs. federal power favored strong central government; Positions on other issues loose interpretation of Constitution, national bank, national tariff, Britain; Presidential candidate in 1796 John Adams; Republicans Leaders Thomas Jefferson; Supporters southern planters, northern artisans and farmers; Position on state vs. federal power favored strong state governments; Positions on other issues favored strict interpretation of the Constitution, France, opposed national bank, protective tariff; Presidential candidate in 1796 Thomas Jefferson; Results of the 1796 Election President John Adams, Vice President Thomas Jefferson
Chapter 8 Section 3 A Reading Strategy circle Native Americans were worried about losing their lands; draw an arrow to: In the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, Native Americans gave up much of their land in the Northwest Territory.
Checkpoint The Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville Vocabulary Builder a written announcement Checkpoint the escalating violence Checkpoint Avoid political divisions at home and involvement in European affairs. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Check Your Progress 1. It refused to comply with an agreement to withdraw from the region under the Treaty of Paris. It supplied guns and ammunition to Native Americans; 2. At first most Americans supported it. But as the revolution grew more violent, Federalists withdrew their support. Republicans continued to support it. Notetaking Study Guide Conflicts in the Northwest Territory: Conflict with Britain: American Revolution; guns, ammunition, settlement; Conflict with Native Americans: force; refused; Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville; The French Revolution: supported; 1. Reign of Terror, Federalists, Republicans; 2. France, seizing, impressment; to pay debts long owed to British merchants; to pay for the ships it had seized, to withdraw its troops from the Northwest Territory and stop aiding Native Americans there; to recognize a U.S. right to trade with France, to cease impressments of U.S. sailors; Washington Retires: Farewell Address Advice: warned against political divisions at home, emphasized his belief that the U.S. must not get entangled in the affairs of Europe; Washington’s Accomplishments: ended economic crisis, kept country out of war, British forced to leave forts in Northwest Territory
Chapter 8 Section 4 A Reading Strategy Cause: The decision of the United States to stay neutral during the war between France and Britain; Effects: The French refused to meet with an American diplomat, and they continued to seize American ships.
Checkpoint an undeclared naval war with France Checkpoint Sedition Act Vocabulary Builder A Checkpoint James Madison, Thomas Jefferson Check Your Progress 1. increase size of the army and rebuild the navy; 2. nullification and states’ rights Notetaking Study Guide Troubles with France: neutral; snubbed, American ships; bribe, diplomats; Federalists; undeclared naval war, army, department of the navy; stop seizing American ships, avoided fullscale war with France; Federalists; weakened; The Alien and Sedition Acts: they feared immigrants would spread dangerous ideas (from the French Revolution); they feared immigrants would favor the Republican Party; become a citizen from 5 to 14 years, jail, deport, say or write anything insulting or false, free speech; States’ Rights: Virginia, Kentucky, declare federal laws unconstitutional; nullification
Chapter 8 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. C, 3. A, 4. A A 1. B, 2. C, 3. A
Step 1: Advice 1. warned against political divisions at home, 2. stressed that the United States must not get entangled in European affairs; Accomplishments
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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1. United States had a functioning federal government 2. economy was improving 3. he had avoided war 4. British forced to leave the Northwest Territory Step 2: Answers will vary, but students might point out that by adopting a policy of neutrality, Washington had avoided becoming entangled in European affairs and war; that the federal government arguably worked as well as it did because people worked to overcome political divisions Step 3: Answers will vary, but students’ answers should reflect an understanding of how Washington’s accomplishments either do or do not reflect the advice given in his Farewell Address.
were elected in the same election; House of Representatives; Twelfth Amendment; separate votes for President and Vice President; Jefferson Charts a New Course: to limit the federal government’s power over states and citizens; cut number of government employees, shrunk the military, eliminated all federal taxes, released those jailed under the Sedition Act; nation should keep paying its debt, let most Federalist officeholders keep their jobs; The Supreme Court and Judicial Review: Marbury, Madison, Judiciary Act of 1789, the powers of the Supreme Court came from the Constitution and not from Congress; judicial review, unconstitutional
Chapter 8 Notetaking Study Guide Internal Challenges: Treasury, State, War; a court system; nation and states deep in debt; three part, 1. repay all federal and state debts, 2. establish a national bank; tax on all whiskey made in the United States; the strength of the national government; Republicans, Federalists; British had not removed troops after a decade and were supplying Native Americans with guns and ammunition, Native Americans wanted to keep their land and Americans wanted to settle it, Native Americans gave up most of their lands from the Ohio River in the South to Lake Erie in the North; External Challenges: opposed revolutionaries because of violence; supported revolutionaries and said some violence was to be expected; remained neutral; neither Britain nor France would trade, both countries stopped U.S. ships and seized cargo, Britain impressed U.S. sailors; Americans agreed to pay debts owed to British merchants, British agreed to pay for the ships it had seized, withdraw its troops from the Northwest Territory and stop aiding Native Americans, British did not agree to recognize a U.S. right to trade with France or to cease impressments of U.S. sailors; undeclared naval war with France; France would stop seizing American ships; citizenship, freedom of speech
Chapter 9 Section 2
Chapter 9 Section 1
Notetaking Study Guide Westward Expansion: gave Americans the right to ship their goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans; Napoleon intended to make France a strong power in America; Buying Louisiana: purchase New Orleans and West Florida from France; French driven from Haiti, war between France and Britain loomed; sell entire Louisiana territory to United States; The Constitution did not authorize the President to buy land; Jefferson decided that because the Constitution gave the President the power to make treaties, he could purchase the Louisiana Territory; Exploring the West: learn about geography, plants, animals, and the natural features of the region, make contact with Native Americans, find out if a waterway connected the Mississippi with the Pacific; from St. Louis, up the Missouri River to the Platte River, eastern edge of Great Plains, North Dakota, Montana, across the Rockies to the Columbia River, down the
Checkpoint repaying the national debt Vocabulary Builder Possible answer: someone appointed to or given a position A Reading Strategy underline the authority of the Supreme Court to strike down unconstitutional laws; circle This ruling increased the Court’s power.
Checkpoint John Marshall Check Your Progress 1. After the tie between Jefferson and Burr, the President and Vice President were elected separately; 2. the power to strike down unconstitutional laws Notetaking Study Guide The Election of 1800: Aaron Burr, Thomas Jefferson; they received same number of electoral votes because the President and Vice President 16
A Reading Strategy Possible answers: underline Spain withdrew Americans’ rights to ship their goods through New Orleans; circle Westerners demanded that Jefferson go to war to win back their rights. Or underline Westerners demanded that Jefferson go to war to win back their rights; circle Instead Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to offer to buy New Orleans and a territory to the east called West Florida from the French.
Checkpoint Gulf of Mexico, Canada, Mississippi River, Rocky Mountains Vocabulary Builder Sample answer: This expedition was set up to accomplish the goal of exploring new lands. Checkpoint Sacagawea Check Your Progress 1. It gave the United States access to the Mississippi River and doubled the size of the country; 2. One of the following: to report on the geography, plants, animals, and other natural features of the region, make contact with Native Americans, find out if a waterway connected the Mississippi with the Pacific.
Checkpoint They were shipped down the Mississippi to New Orleans. From there, they were shipped east.
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Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean; Americans gained a new awareness of a rich and beautiful part of the continent; Pike’s Expedition: southern part of the Louisiana Territory, west to the Rockies, through Spanish New Mexico; mountain he climbed now called Pikes Peak, sparked American interest in the Spanish borderlands
Chapter 9 Section 3 Checkpoint Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, Tripoli Checkpoint Britain, France A Reading Strategy The title indicates that the reader is about to learn how Jefferson responded to the material discussed in the previous paragraph.
Checkpoint crop prices declined, Americans lost their jobs
Chapter 9 Assessment
Checkpoint Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa
Step 1: Possible answers: The United States nearly doubled in size. The United States gained access to the Mississippi and the port of New Orleans. The United States gained many new natural resources; Step 2: Possible answers include: Westward settlement might have been halted, so the United States might not be as large as it is today. Since the Mississippi has been so important for trade in the United States, the U.S. economy might not have grown as much as it did. The United States might not be as wealthy as it is today without access to the many valuable natural resources found in the Louisiana Territory; Step 3: Students’ answers will vary, but should incorporate their responses from Steps 1 and 2.
Check Your Progress 1. piracy in the Mediterranean Sea and attacks on American shipping by Britain and France; 2. Possible answers: spread disease, led to a loss of hunting grounds and game, led to a population decline, led to a loss of power for traditional leaders
Notetaking Study Guide The Move Toward War: Britain was arming Native Americans and impressing American sailors; war hawks; they believed it would hurt American trade; Early Days of the War: it was still at war in Europe; blockaded the coast; USS Constitution; The War in the West and South: Canada; he retreated; surrounded Hull’s army and captured 2,000 American soldiers; Oliver Hazard Perry; the Thames; Tecumseh; Andrew Jackson, Horseshoe Bend; Final Battles: they finally defeated Napoleon; capital, several government buildings in Washington, D.C., including the White House; Fort McHenry; “The Star-Spangled Banner”; Ghent; Andrew Jackson; New Orleans; Hartford Convention; secede
Notetaking Study Guide Barbary Pirates: paying tribute to Barbary States, sent warships to the Mediterranean to protect U.S. merchant ships; American Neutrality Challenged: seized U.S. ships trading with the other country, Britain impressed American sailors; Jefferson called for an embargo forbidding foreign trade, and Congress passed the Embargo Act; crop prices declined, tens of thousands of Americans lost their jobs, rise of smuggling to get around embargo; Native American Unrest: threatened their hunting grounds, drove away game, population decline, power of traditional leaders fell; resist, return to traditional ways; took military action against Native American resistance, such as in the Battle of Tippecanoe
Chapter 9 Section 4
Chapter 9 Notetaking Study Guide Jefferson: cut military spending, cut taxes, reversed the Sedition Act; sent representatives to France to buy New Orleans, sent an expedition to explore the new lands; sent warships, sent marines; put an embargo in place; Madison: Impressment of American sailors continued.
Chapter 10 Section 1
Checkpoint New England
Checkpoint the Republican Party
Checkpoint blockaded U.S. coast Checkpoint Students may list any two of the following three: Oliver Hazard Perry, William Henry Harrison, Andrew Jackson Vocabulary Builder Possible answer: the United States and Britain were carrying on the business of making peace or a treaty for peace. A Reading Strategy Students should underline Opposition to war was strongest in New England, where many believed war would hurt American trade.
Checkpoint the Battle of New Orleans. Check Your Progress 1. Arming Native Americans and impressing American sailors; 2. because of military cuts made by Jefferson OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
OL 1. C, 2. D, 3. A A 1. C, 2. A, 3. A
A Reading Strategy Answers will vary but should demonstrate an understanding that the North supported tariffs because they protected its industries, while the South opposed tariffs because they made goods more expensive. OL Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary, but students could note that infrastructure such as roads and bridges are important because they are used for travel and transportation.
Checkpoint Henry Clay, the West; John C. Calhoun, the South; Daniel Webster, the North Checkpoint McCulloch v. Maryland Check Your Progress 1. to protect U.S. industries from dumping by British manufacturers; 2. McCulloch v.
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden declared that state laws cannot violate or conflict with federal laws or usurp federal powers. Notetaking Study Guide Important Political Figures (first row) Kentucky, western, American System; (second row) South Carolina, southern, states’ rights; (third row) Daniel Webster, Massachusetts, high tariffs; Important Economic Issues (first row) state banks, money supply; (second row) British, dumping goods, raised taxes, northerners, southerners; Key Supreme Court Cases (first row) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), second Bank of the United States, interfere with, federal law; (second row) Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, private contract, Constitution; (third row) New York State, monopoly, interstate commerce, Congress, regulate
Chapter 10 Section 2 Checkpoint Spain could not protect Florida from U.S. attack. Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but could indicate that Bolívar’s success in liberating South American nations from Spain gave him his nickname. Checkpoint The French and American revolutions A Reading Strategy Answers will vary. Possible question: What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine? Answer: to prevent European nations from interfering in Latin America
Checkpoint Latin America Checkpoint the Act of Union
Notetaking Study Guide Latin American Independence North America monarchy, republic, 1821; Central America United Provinces of Central America, 1823; South America Republic of Great Colombia; 1819; Portugal, 1822; U.S.–Foreign Relations Relations With Spain crossed into Florida; U.S. settlements; two Spanish towns; Florida, the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819; Relations With Canada It merged Canada’s two parts into a single unit governed by a Canadian legislature; It gave the Canadians more powers of self-government; The United States tried to invade Canada; Monroe Doctrine The United States would not allow European nations to create American colonies or interfere with the free nations of Latin America; 1823; European powers such as France and Russia indicated that they might help Spain regain its colonies.
Chapter 10 Section 3 A Reading Strategy a corrupt bargain
Checkpoint Two of the following: the Democratic Party, the National Republican Party, the Whig Party Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but they should note that political appointments are one of the prizes that the winning party gets. The “spoils” of war are the “prizes” that the winner of a war receives. Checkpoint three times as many Check Your Progress 1. Almost all adult white males had the right to vote by 1824, not just those with property. Also, in 18 of 24 states, voters directly elected their electors, instead of the state legislature doing so. 2. The political parties replaced caucuses with the larger nominating conventions. Notetaking Study Guide Important Events During the Age of Jackson 1824 Who ran Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford; Electoral vote Jackson; Problem Jackson did not receive a majority of the electoral votes; Who elected Adams; 1824–1828 secret deal to win election; ambitious, little; Congress; 1828 Who ran Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams; Who won Jackson; sectional, class; 1832 Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson; Who won Jackson; Key Political Changes During the Age of Jackson Choosing the electoral college How it changed In most states, voters chose their electors; What it replaced State legislatures chose the state’s electors; Choosing political candidates How it changed The Whigs and Democrats began holding large nominating conventions to choose party candidates; What it replaced A party’s members of Congress held a caucus to select candidates; Ideas about who should participate in politics Ordinary people should vote and hold public office.
Chapter 10 Section 4 Checkpoint Two of the following: Christianity, businesses, schools, a newspaper Vocabulary Builder Students should note that unlike the Old Northwest, the region that made up the Southeast in the 1800s is still the southeastern portion of the United States today. Checkpoint The Indian Removal Act of 1830 A Reading Strategy 1828: Cherokee refuse Georgia’s order to move; 1831: the Supreme Court rules against the Cherokees; 1832: Supreme Court rules in favor of Cherokee staying; 1838–1839: Federal government forces Cherokee to move, causing thousands to die on the Trail of Tears
Checkpoint the name given to the route taken by the Cherokees during their forced removal to Indian Territory Check Your Progress 1. The Supreme Court ruled that the treaties that the Cherokees had signed with the U.S. government should be honored. The state of Georgia
Check Your Progress 1. Enslaved African Americans were escaping into Spanish Florida. Seminoles from Spanish Florida were raiding American settlements across the border; 2. because he thought cooperating with Britain would make the United States look like Britain’s junior partner.
Checkpoint his humble beginnings and his firm leadership
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could not remove Cherokees from their land. 2. Most of these groups, including the Choctaw, Cherokee, and many of the Seminole, were forced to leave the Southeast and settle in Indian Territory. Notetaking Study Guide Time Line of Indian Removal 1827 written constitution; 1832 Georgia cannot force the Cherokees to give up their lands; 1831–1833 Indian Territory; 1838–1839 Trail of Tears; 1840s Seminoles; Cause and Effect: Indian Removal Causes Native Americans stood in the way of westward expansion; The land was fertile, and they wanted it for growing cotton; Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole; Effects gave Jackson the authority to offer Native American nations land west of the Mississippi in exchange for their lands in the East; give up their land and move to Indian Territory; thousands of Cherokees died during relocation to Indian Territory
Chapter 10 Section 5 Checkpoint Andrew Jackson, Nicholas Biddle Checkpoint The Tenth Amendment Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but could state that nullification protected states’ rights because in nullifying a law, a state could cancel a law which it felt was unfair.
them. Step 2: Arguments For Nullification The Union was formed by an agreement between the various states, and the states retained the power to nullify laws they considered unfair; Arguments Against Nullification The United States had been formed by the entire American people, not the states. The people were the supreme power, not the states. Step 3: Answers will vary, but should include information from the first two steps.
Chapter 10 Notetaking Study Guide U.S.-Foreign Relations The United States would not allow European powers to create American colonies or to interfere in the affairs of Latin America; Relations improved over time. Federal Government Versus States’ Rights McCulloch v. Maryland, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden; nullify laws to which they objected; Indian Removal White settlers wanted the fertile land on which Native Americans lived. Others thought Native Americans stood in the way of westward expansion; to move west to Indian Territory; the Trail of Tears; Democratic Reforms in the Age of Jackson voters, state legislatures; nominating conventions; A National Economy federal government, paper money, currency; they believed it favored the rich over everyday people
Checkpoint the high tariffs passed by Congress in 1832 Checkpoint Panic of 1837
Unit 3 Pulling It Together
Check Your Progress 1. Supporters of the Bank believed that it helped business and improved public confidence in banks. Opponents felt that its money lending policies favored the rich and hurt everyday people; 2. High tariffs passed by Congress helped the North but hurt the South. South Carolina argued that states’ rights gave them the right to nullify unfair federal laws.
National Issues Facing the New Nation Powers of National Government: judicial review; Political Divisions: development of political parties; States’ Rights: tariffs, National Bank; Relations with Native Americans: Trail of Tears; International Issues Facing the New Nation Trade: Barbary pirates; War of 1812: seizure of ships National Borders: Louisiana Purchase, treaties with Canada; Western Hemisphere: Monroe Doctrine
Notetaking Study Guide The Bank War (first row) federal; state; stable; (second row) economic crisis of 1819; (third row) vetoed; opposing; 1836; States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis (first row) federal, state, many significant powers, limited, powers not given to the federal government belonged to the states or to the people; (second row) northern manufacturers, southerners; (third row) John C. Calhoun, cancel federal laws they objected to, states; (fourth row) Daniel Webster, the entire American people; (fifth row) South Carolina, secede, use force to collect the tariff, tariffs, South Carolina, repeal its tariff nullification; The End of the Jackson Era Martin Van Buren, 1836, Panic of 1837, win reelection in 1840
Chapter 10 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. A, 3. C A 1. A, 2. C, 3. B
Step 1: Beliefs of Supporters of Nullification States had the right to void federal laws they considered unfair; Beliefs of Opponents of Nullification Federal laws were the supreme laws of the land, and states had to obey OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Chapter 11 Section 1 Checkpoint steam power Checkpoint Samuel Slater Checkpoint “Lowell girls” Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but should note that the replacement alters the meaning of “interchangeable parts.” The parts would no longer be truly interchangeable and would thus be less useful. Checkpoint Any of the following: poor lighting, bad air, dangerous machinery Check Your Progress 1. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system. Men, women, and children left home and worked long hours working on machines in factories. 2. Interchangeable parts are identical and can be assembled by unskilled workers, making production faster and cheaper. Notetaking Study Guide The Industrial Revolution people, horses, flowing water, steam engines; spun
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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thread, homes, spinning jenny; factory system, machinery; Richard Arkwright, water frame, running water, the banks of rivers; Richard Arkwright, textile plant, riverbanks; Samuel Slater; Eli Whitney, interchangeable parts, unskilled workers; U.S. industry; spinning, weaving, young women; Typical Factory Working Conditions Factory conditions: Poor lighting and little fresh air; Safety conditions: Dangerous machinery caused many injuries; Treatment of disabled workers: no benefits
Chapter 11 Section 2 Checkpoint poor sewers; lack of clean drinking water; filthy city streets Checkpoint Two of the following: Cyrus McCormick/ mechanical reaper, Samuel F.B. Morse/telegraph, or Elias Howe/Isaac Singer/sewing machine. Checkpoint steamboats, clipper ships, oceangoing steamships, railroads/steam locomotive A Reading Strategy underline (Cause) Ireland suffered from a famine; circle (Effect) Huge numbers of Irish came to America.
Checkpoint Ireland, Germany Checkpoint Discrimination is the denial of equal rights or equal treatment to certain groups of people. Check Your Progress 1. the telegraph, 2. Better transportation allowed factories to make use of raw materials from farther away, and manufactured goods could be delivered to distant markets.
Chapter 11 Section 3 Vocabulary Builder Cotton engine Checkpoint By processing cotton much more quickly, it made cotton much more profitable to grow. Farmers began to grow more cotton. Checkpoint Three of the following: by working slowly, breaking equipment, fleeing to the North, or leading slave rebellions Check Your Progress 1. Slaves were used to grow most of the cotton in the South, so as cotton production 20
Notetaking Study Guide The Southern Economy Cotton gin What it was: Eli Whitney; Impact on Economy: profitable, slaves, cotton production, source of wealth; Slave labor Argument for slave labor: more humane than the free labor because slaves didn’t have to worry about unemployment; Arguments against slave labor: nonslaves were free to quit jobs and find others, enslaved people suffered physical or other abuse from white owners; African American Life in the South Restrictions placed on free African Americans’ rights: menial jobs; attend public schools, vote, serve on juries, testify against white defendants in court; traveling; Hardships faced on plantations: harsh physical punishment for breaking rules, hard labor, separated; Types of work enslaved African Americans performed: Some were skilled workers, some worked in households, most did heavy field work; African American culture: customs, dance, music; spirituals; Ways of resisting slavery: working slowly, breaking farm equipment, fleeing north, staging rebellions
Chapter 11 Section 4 Checkpoint Kentucky, Tennessee Checkpoint the National Road A Reading Strategy “or” should be circled
Checkpoint Lake Erie and the Hudson River Checkpoint Maine, Missouri Check Your Progress 1. to transport people and especially goods more cheaply and quickly between the East and the West, 2. It permitted Maine to be admitted to the Union as a free state and Missouri to be admitted as a slave state. It also provided that the Louisiana Territory north of the southern border of Missouri would be free of slavery. It also gave southern slave owners a right to pursue fugitives into “free” regions. Notetaking Study Guide Roads and Canals: corduroy road, Allowed roads to be built in marshy areas; canal, A channel dug across land and filled with water; National Road, First federally funded road helped connect the Midwest and the East; Canal connecting Lake Erie and the Hudson River, 1825; canal-building boom, quickly, East, New York City; Missouri Compromise Henry Clay; 1. Maine, 2. Missouri, 3. Louisiana Territory, 4. fugitive slaves
Chapter 11 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. D, 3. A, 4. C A 1. C, 2. B, 3. A, 4. C
Step 1: Northern economy: any of the following: industrial growth, importance of factories and factory labor; Southern economy: any of the following: lack of industry, reliance on cotton production, use of slave labor system;
Notetaking Study Guide Key Inventions Mechanical reaper, Cyrus McCormick, 1800s; Steamboat, Robert Fulton, 1807; Steam locomotive, 1830, Made overland travel faster and cheaper; Telegraph, Samuel F.B. Morse, carried messages faster than ever before; 1850, carried cargo on the ocean faster than ever before; Changes in Population Immigration: western Europe; The Irish came to escape: famine in Ireland; The Germans came to escape: failed revolutions in Germany; Nativists: wanted to preserve the country for white, Americanborn Protestants, Know-Nothings: a nativist group that became a political party; African Americans in the North: Many schools and public facilities in the North were segregated; Results: discrimination, vote, skilled trades
expanded, so did the southern reliance on slavery. 2. Free African Americans could not vote, serve on juries, testify against whites in court, or attend public schools. They were discouraged from traveling.
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Step 2: How They Are Alike: cotton important to both regions; How They Are Different: can include any of the following: North had growing industry while South relied on agriculture, North had free labor while South relied on slave system; Step 3: Topic sentence should be completed to show that the North was becoming industrial, urban, and focused on free labor while the South remained largely rural, agricultural, and dependent upon the institution of slavery. Supporting sentences should give evidence supporting this position.
Chapter 11 Notetaking Study Guide The North Economy 2. water frame, 3. steam-powered textile plant; meeting of workers and machines in one place; Child and/or young women; Society fires, sanitation; steamboats, clipper ships, railroads; laborers, population; The South Economy cotton gin, source of wealth; Society slave-owning large landowners; rights, controlled; vote, juries; public schools, traveling; Growing Sectional Differences Missouri Compromise; Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state; Congress gave itself the power to make laws regarding slavery; Congress had allowed slavery to expand into another state.
A Reading Strategy Students should circle Meanwhile, other reformers tried to change the existing society and draw an arrow to Some reformers experimented with building utopian, or ideal, communities.
A Reading Strategy Students should circle Former president John Quincy Adams also supported abolition and underline he read antislavery petitions in the House of Representatives and introduced a constitutional amendment to ban slavery in new states.
Checkpoint The New England Anti-Slavery Society Checkpoint Harriet Tubman Checkpoint They relied on cotton produced by slave labor. Check Your Progress 1. powerful speaker for abolitionism, published an antislavery newspaper; 2. a system used by slaves to escape to freedom Notetaking Study Guide Roots of the Antislavery Movement ban slavery in its constitution; every Northern state; began an effort to gradually free and then send slaves back to Liberia; unsuccessful; Growing Opposition to Slavery reformers who wanted to abolish slavery; the Liberator; full political rights; New England Anti-Slavery Society; Appeal: to the Coloured Citizens of the World, rebel to gain their freedom; slave, speaker; antislavery newspaper; antislavery petitions from the floor of the House, nine hours to help free Amistad captives; a system for helping people escape slavery; abolitionists’ homes, churches, or caves; the Black Moses, more than 300 slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad; Opposition to Abolition slave labor; freed slaves would take their jobs; positive force, antislavery petitions
Chapter 12 Section 3
Checkpoint Dorothea Dix
Checkpoint Three of the following: vote, serve on juries, attend college, practice medicine, practice law
Checkpoint Horace Mann
Vocabulary Builder include
Check Your Progress 1. The Second Great Awakening; 2. Temperance supported moderate alcohol use, prohibition supported banning alcohol entirely.
Checkpoint the Declaration of Sentiments
Notetaking Study Guide The Reforming Spirit of Jacksonian Democracy women, slavery; the idea that people’s own actions determine their salvation, minister who held the first religious revivals, improve society; founded a utopian community called New Harmony in Indiana, did not last very long; Social Reformers at Work end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it, women and children suffered at the hands of drinking men, a total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol; new, more sanitary, and more humane prisons, asylums, the mentally ill; voters, immigrants assimilate, led the education reform movement, met resistance, Massachusetts, first college founded for African American men
Chapter 12 Section 2 Checkpoint Pennsylvania Vocabulary Builder condemn OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
A Reading Strategy Students should circle schoolteacher, abolitionist, temperance supporter
Checkpoint Mount Holyoke Female Seminary Check Your Progress 1. They feared it might harm other causes because it was so controversial; 2. the abolition (or antislavery) movement Notetaking Study Guide Roots of the Movement Quaker, active in antislavery movement, had organizing and speaking skills; wrote the Declaration of Sentiments; Seneca Falls Convention antislavery; convention for women’s rights; women’s suffrage; full equality for women in all areas of life; the right to vote; New Opportunities for Women the National Woman Suffrage Association, protecting women’s property rights; the Troy Female Seminary, a model for girls’ schools everywhere; Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, college for women; Women in the Nineteenth Century, the need for women’s rights; woman to graduate from a medical school; professor hired at Vassar college,
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Chapter 13 Section 1
Chapter 12 Section 4
A Reading Strategy underline: it was covered by thickly rooted grasses that would be hard to clear; circle: They did not think it was good for farming
Vocabulary Builder believing in the best outcome
Checkpoint Great Plains, Northwest, Southwest
A Reading Strategy Romanticism
Checkpoint Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau Checkpoint Louisa May Alcott Checkpoint Hudson River school Check Your Progress 1. optimism; 2. They introduced psychological themes and extreme emotions. Notetaking Study Guide Development of an American Culture European styles, writers, artists, optimism, energy; Dutch history of New York, Natty Bumppo, a frontiersman; artistic movement, nature, strong emotions, and the imagination; the relationship between man and nature through emotions, individualism, live simply; Flowering of American Literature introducing psychological themes and extreme emotions, believable and imperfect person; history, formal rules, democratic American spirit, the evils of slavery; Art the beauty and power of nature, life on the great rivers, Native Americans; Music work songs, spirituals
Chapter 12 Assessment OL 1. D, 2. B, 3. C A 1. C, 2. B, 3. C
Chapter 12 Notetaking Study Guide Society and Education 1. the expansion of democracy, 2. religious feelings; an organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it; sanitary, humane prisons, asylums for the mentally ill; Horace Mann, Massachusetts; Slavery abolitionist newspaper; Harriet Tubman; discussion of antislavery petitions in Congress; Women’s Rights the Declaration of Sentiments; women’s suffrage; National Woman Suffrage Association; medicine, astronomy, journalism; Culture Romanticism; Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau; a believable, imperfect person, rather than as a shining ideal; the daily lives of Americans 22
Checkpoint opened up the region to foreign trade; removed missions from church control and gave their lands to Mexican settlers Checkpoint Manifest Destiny Check Your Progress 1. settlers thought the land could not be farmed; 2. Manifest Destiny Notetaking Study Guide The Great Plains covered by thickly rooted grass that would be hard to clear; just a path to the Far West; The Northwest land known as Oregon between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean; Washington and Oregon; the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spain; fertile land for farming; Manifest Destiny the idea that the United States should stretch from coast to coast; Mexican Settlement Included the present-day states of: California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and half of Colorado; Spanish Missions Purpose: to convert the local Native Americans to Catholicism; Effect of missions on Indians: thousands of Native Americans died from overwork or disease; Blended culture Spanish influence: law, religion, language; Native American influence: building materials, food; Creoles were children born in the Southwest to Spanish settlers; Mestizos were children of Spanish settlers, Africans, and Native Americans; Trade under Spanish rule: illegal to trade with any nation but Spain; Trade under Mexican rule: opened trade with foreign nations; a few peninsulares; church; rancheros and American settlers; Native Americans; raiding ranches; they were crushed; declined
Chapter 13 Section 2 Vocabulary Builder Possible answer: set apart, separate Checkpoint Captain William Becknell, John Jacob Astor, mountain men Checkpoint missionaries, farmers Checkpoint disease, accidents, natural disasters Check Your Progress 1. trade⎯traders were looking for new markets in which to sell their goods; 2. because their labor was so obviously important to the success of a settler family Notetaking Study Guide Traders Lead the Way The Santa Fe Trail Captain William Becknell; Independence, Missouri; Santa Fe, New Mexico; treacherous rivers, desert, nearly impassable mountains; overland, Mexico,
Step 1: Definition: organized attempts to improve conditions in life; Rooted In: politics and religion; Step 2: Second Great Awakening: questioned whether God alone decided a person’s fate, argued that people’s own actions determined their salvation; How It Was Spread: preachers like Charles Finney held revivals encouraging people to improve themselves and society; Step 3: Students should complete the topic sentence, noting how the religious ideas of the Second Great Awakening, spread by preachers like Charles Finney, helped spark widespread social reform.
Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary, but should demonstrate an understanding that a mission was a place where Native Americans lived and worked, and where Spanish missionaries taught them about Christianity.
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800; The Oregon Fur Trade American; mountain men; beaver supply was nearly exhausted, so trappers had to look for new ways to support themselves; The Oregon Trail Missionaries to bring their religious beliefs to the Indians; Marcus and Narcissa Whitman; Their reports of Oregon led eastern farmers to seek fertile land, mild climate, and plentiful rainfall; On the Trail 2,000, Missouri, Oregon; spring, death in the Rockies during the winter; 50,000; Life in the West Pioneer Life hand tools, plant crops; disease, accidents, natural disasters; Women in the West they were necessary for their families’ survival; Wyoming Territory, vote; Native Americans and Settlers uneasy peace between the two groups; the discovery of gold; miners, northern, war
Chapter 13 Section 3 Checkpoint Stephen Austin, Santa Anna, Sam Houston A Reading Strategy problem: maintaining the balance of slave and free states; solution: admit Texas as a slave state and Oregon as a free territory
Checkpoint the Nueces River, the Rio Grande Checkpoint Zachary Taylor, Stephen Kearny, John C. Frémont, Winfield Scott Checkpoint Mexican Cession, Gadsden Purchase
Check Your Progress 1. Democracy, 2. Polk sent General Taylor to the Rio Grande border. Notetaking Study Guide Events Leading to Texas’s Independence [first box] slavery, American settlement; [second box] dictatorship, the Alamo, many American volunteers to join the Texan army, San Jacinto; [third box] Sam Houston, annex, admitting Texas would disrupt the balance between slave and free states; Annexing Texas and Oregon [first box] Washington, Oregon, part of Idaho; [second box] recognized Texas’s independence; Rio Grande; Nueces River; The MexicanAmerican War [first box] southerners; westerners; more land; northerners; extend slavery; [second box] Santa Fe, New Mexico; California; [third box] General Zachary Taylor; General Winfield Scott; Mexico City; [fourth box] Guadalupe-Hidalgo; Texas’s independence; the Mexican Cession; California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico; [fifth box] Gadsen Purchase; Arizona and New Mexico
Chapter 13 Section 4 Checkpoint Mormons control the election process; church support of Mormon-owned businesses; polygamy Vocabulary Builder a. hope Checkpoint Other migrations included both men and women; the gold rush brought mainly young men. A Reading Strategy circle: The gold rush brought tragedy for Native Americans in California; underline two of the following: Miners swarmed onto Indian lands; and vigilante OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
gangs killed many Indians; About 100,000 Indians died during the gold rush. Checkpoint Miners objected to anyone profiting from mining who did not participate in the hard labor of finding gold. Check Your Progress 1. to escape communities hostile to their religion; 2. The population increased greatly and became more ethnically diverse. Notetaking Study Guide Mormons Move West Seeking Refuge New York, Ohio, Missouri; Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake; Conflict with the Government 1848; 1. Problem: Non-Mormons had no say in the election process; 2. Problem: Non-Mormons had difficulty doing business in Utah; Solution: Church leaders agreed to stop favoring Mormon-owned businesses; 3. Problem: the practice of having more than one wife at a time; Solution: Church leaders agreed to ban polygamy; 1896; The California Gold Rush Gold Is Discovered 1848, Sacramento, “forty-niners,”14,000, 100,000; Miners and Mining Towns food, supplies, entertainment, vigilantes, self-appointed law enforcers; California’s Changing Population Europe, Asia, Australia, South America; discrimination, menial labor; miners believed only those who participated in the hard labor of mining should profit; two, vigilante; 15, Mexican (or Californios)
Chapter 13 Assessment OL 1. A, 2. C, 3. A, 4. C A 1. A, 2. C, 3. A, 4. C
Step 1 the idea that the United States should stretch from coast to coast; Step 2 Mexico recognized Texas’s independence; the United States received a vast area in the Southwest—California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico; Step 3 Students’ answers will vary, but should explain how the results described in Step 2 helped the United States achieve the idea described in Step 1.
Chapter 13 Notetaking Study Guide The West Pacific Ocean; the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spain; the idea that the United States should stretch from coast to coast; Trails to the West stretched 2,000 miles from Missouri to Oregon; For women improved status in the West because their work was necessary for survival; For Native Americans and settlers an uneasy peace with settlers, sometimes leading to war; Texas and the MexicanAmerican War admitting Texas would disrupt the balance between free and slave states; Texas was admitted as a slave state, and Oregon was admitted as a free territory; tensions between the United States as a result of Mexico’s refusal to recognize Texas’s independence and the United States and Mexico’s dispute over Texas’s southern border; A Rush to the West hostile communities; gold
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Unit 4 Pulling It Together
Checkpoint popular sovereignty
Factors That United the North and the South, 1800– 1860 new method of communication: the telegraph; machines make production quicker and cheaper; increased demand for labor; new American styles and subjects in art, literature, and music; westward expansion and Manifest Destiny, reform movements; Factors That Divided the North and the South, 1800– 1860 In North: the steam engine, the factory system; expanding cities, factories; unskilled factory workers, including immigrants; expansion of public education, abolitionist movement; growing support for abolition, wanted to limit the spread of slavery; In South: the cotton gin; rural—many plantations and small farms; enslaved African Americans; few reforms made in education; depended on slave labor, wanted to expand slavery in the West
Checkpoint 3,000; 8,000 Check Your Progress 1. North: California as a free state and no slave trade in the capital; South: popular sovereignty in the territories and Fugitive Slave Act; 2. It undid the Missouri Compromise. Notetaking Study Guide Compromises Fail: Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay; free state, nation’s capital, popular sovereignty, fugitive slave law; Fugitive Slave Act of 1850: runaway slave, trial, northerners, controversial, Canada; Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854: Stephen Douglas, popular sovereignty, Missouri Compromise, slavery, northerners; Kansas Election of 1855: majority, territorial legislature, election, governments, Bleeding Kansas
Chapter 14 Section 3 Chapter 14 Section 1
Checkpoint Whigs who took a strong antislavery stand, Free-Soilers, northern Democrats
Vocabulary Builder Federal law Checkpoint Democrats: Lewis Cass, Free-Soil: Martin Van Buren, Whigs: Zachary Taylor A Reading Strategy underline: California came in as a
free state; circle: a constitutional amendment protecting states’ rights and secession Checkpoint Two of the following: California coming in slave or free, abolishing slave trade in Washington, D.C., return of fugitive slaves to the South Check Your Progress 1. an 1846 proposal that Congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; 2. If California came in free, free states would gain the majority in the Senate and the South could no longer block antislavery proposals.
Chapter 14 Section 2 Checkpoint Two of the following: Suspected runaway slaves could be arrested; The accused had no right to a trial; All that was needed to deprive someone of his or her freedom was the word of one white person; Northerners were required to help capture runaway slaves Checkpoint People were shocked and became more concerned about slavery. Vocabulary Builder A 24
A Reading Strategy Lincoln opposed the KansasNebraska Act.
Vocabulary Builder Lincoln believed that African Americans should have all the rights described in the Declaration of Independence. Checkpoint Two of the following: Slavery was wrong; Slavery would die out on its own; Slavery must be kept out of the West; African Americans were entitled to the rights listed in the Declaration of Independence Checkpoint the North Check Your Progress 1. to stop slavery from spreading into the West; 2. to get the guns that would let him arm an army that would free all slaves Notetaking Study Guide Dred Scott Decision: Roger B. Taney, citizens; property rights; Missouri Compromise; rejoiced, shocked; Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas Debates: 1858; Kansas-Nebraska Act; Kansas-Nebraska Act, stop the spread of slavery into the western territories; Douglas’s stand on popular sovereignty: each state has the right to choose slavery if it pleases; Lincoln’s stand on African Americans: a. not socially and politically equal to white people, b. entitled to rights in the Declaration of Independence; Lincoln’s stand on slavery: a. morally wrong, b. would die out on its own, c. can’t be allowed in the West; Lincoln’s position on the Union: In favor of the Union, Lincoln stated that the country could not survive “half slave and half free”; John Brown’s Raid: Who was John Brown: New England abolitionist driven out of Kansas for killing proslavery men there; His plan: seize guns at Harpers Ferry, give them to the slaves who joined him, lead them in a revolt that would eventually free all slaves; Southerners were worried because: Brown had support of northern abolitionists, many in the North saw him as a hero
Notetaking Study Guide 2. citizens of each territory or state will vote for themselves whether to be free or slave; both; 3. the Southwest will come in entirely free; North; 4. as a Whig he might favor slavery and the South; South; 5. free states gain a majority in Congress, so southerners can’t block antislavery laws; North; 7. would be exposed to continued attacks on slavery and there would be two ways to preserve the South’s way of life: a constitutional amendment to protect states’ rights or secession; neither; 8. bitter debate will continue to divide the nation; neither
Checkpoint property rights
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Chapter 14 Section 4 Vocabulary Builder the United States of America Checkpoint Stephen Douglas, John Breckinridge, John Bell, Abraham Lincoln A Reading Strategy circle: sending troops; draw arrow
to: other states to secede Checkpoint the attack on Fort Sumter Check Your Progress 1. He won the majority of the electoral votes. 2. a war between opposing groups of citizens of the same country Notetaking Study Guide The Election of 1860: Proslavery and antislavery factions of the Democratic Party chose different candidates and some southerners joined Constitutional Union Party, Northern Democrat: Stephen Douglas, Southern Democrat: John Breckinridge, Constitutional Union: John Bell, Republican: Abraham Lincoln; electoral votes; fragmented; Secession: seceding from the Union; 1. Tennessee Senator Andrew Johnson, 2. Texas Governor Sam Houston; South Carolina; Confederate States of America; Jefferson Davis; he assured the seceded states that he meant them no harm and that he would not interfere with slavery where it existed; 1. rejection, 2. they seize federal property in their borders; Fort Sumter: send a supply ship with no guns, so southerners wouldn’t think he was attacking them; They fired on the fort, capturing it and starting the Civil War.
OL 1. C, 2. B, 3. D, 4. A A 1. C, 2. B, 3. B, 4. A
Step 1: The Wilmot Proviso proposed that Congress ban slavery in all territory won in the Mexican-American War; The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 allowed government officials to arrest any person accused of being a slave and required northerners to help capture runaways if authorities requested assistance; Step 2: They made northerners and southerners alike feel that their way of life was not safe. Each side saw the other as planning to attack and destroy its way of life; Step 3: Students should complete topic sentence, stating that people on each side believed the only way to save their way of life was to fight a war that destroyed the other side’s way of life. Students should then write supporting sentences that synthesize the information in Steps 1 and 2.
Chapter 14 Notetaking Study Guide Growing Tensions Over Slavery: a plan to ban slavery in all southwestern lands that become states, Senate, attack; secession; Compromises Fail: banned slave trade in the U.S. capital; popular sovereignty in rest of Mexican Cession, fugitive slave law; Missouri Compromise; Uncle Tom’s Cabin, propaganda; The Crisis Deepens: Missouri Compromise, to slavery; Stephen Douglas, Declaration of Independence, John OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Brown; The Coming of the Civil War: national government; rejected; Fort Sumter
Chapter 15 Section 1 Checkpoint Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland Checkpoint a larger population, more farmland, more factories Checkpoint to isolate the South Checkpoint to capture Richmond Checkpoint starvation, exposure Check Your Progress 1. Union: blockade the South, control the Mississippi, capture Richmond; Confederate: defend the land, finance the war through continued trade with Britain; 2. The Union lost the battle. Notetaking Study Guide The North 2. The western counties of Virginia refused to secede and became West Virginia; 3. factories, railroad track, farmland, people; 4. blockade southern seaports, cut the South in two by gaining control of the Mississippi River, invade Virginia and seize Richmond; 5. Irvin McDowell; The South 2. Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, Albert Johnston; 3. The Confederates would be fighting in their own territory, and the local people would help them, they would be led by some of the nation’s best officers; 4. to defend its land until the North got tired of fighting, and seek aid from European nations; Hardships of Both Sides: 1. it broke families apart; 3. overcrowded prison camps, food shortages, high death rate
Chapter 15 Section 2 Checkpoint more accurate, a greater range, could be reloaded faster A Reading Strategy possible examples include spent seven months training his army, and His forces could easily have defeated the 15,000 Confederate soldiers facing them, but McClellan stopped to ask for more troops
Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary; sample answer: strengthen, weaken Checkpoint He stopped to ask for more troops when faced with just 15,000 enemy troops. Checkpoint 1. Fort Henry, 2. Fort Donelson, 3. Corinth, Mississippi Check Your Progress 1.Because rifles could shoot farther than earlier weapons, traditional charges resulted in many deaths; 2. McClellan wouldn’t pursue Lee’s retreating army; Grant kept heading south to Corinth after victories at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. Notetaking Study Guide rifles, cannons, Ironclads; Military Leader: Farragut, McClellan, McClellan, Lee; Outcome: ironclads are used by the South against the blockade and by the North to hold the Mississippi River, Union takes control of major railroad center and
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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part of the Mississippi River, Richmond is not taken, Lee is forced to stop his invasion of the North
A Reading Strategy Students should underline: burned buildings, seized crops and livestock, pulled up railroad tracks.
Checkpoint William Tecumseh Sherman
Chapter 15 Section 3 A Reading Strategy Underline This action might lead the
border states to secede and Furthermore, he knew that most northerners did not care enough about slavery to fight a war to end it. Vocabulary Builder a public statement Checkpoint to preserve the Union Checkpoint as soldiers, as cooks, as wagon drivers, as hospital aides Check Your Progress 1. It changed the Civil War into a war for freedom, to end slavery; 2. They usually faced slavery or death if captured by southerners. Notetaking Study Guide Emancipating the Enslaved restore (or preserve) the Union, causing border states to secede, Emancipation Proclamation, states fighting the Union, weakened the South, Emancipation Proclamation, war to end slavery, recognizing the South’s independence; African Americans Help The Union former slaves, prisoners of war, slavery or death, cooks, wagon drivers, hospital aides, provided information to the Union, refused to work
Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary. Example: “without anger or the desire to hurt anyone, and with compassion for all, let us work together to heal the nation.” Checkpoint 360,000; 260,000 Check Your Progress 1. He ordered his men to charge into Confederate gunfire; 2. They were allowed to return home unpunished. Notetaking Study Guide General/Battle(s)/Result 1. Fredericksburg, the Union suffered almost 13,000 casualties, 2. Chancellorsville, Union force was smashed, Stonewall Jackson died, 4. City is captured by the Union, and the South loses all major strongholds on the Mississippi River, 5. Petersburg, Lee’s army is trapped, 6. William Sherman, the city of Atlanta is captured, 7. The South’s people and land are devastated by total war, 8. Ulysses Grant; The End of the War the Gettysburg Address, victory in the presidential election, 360,000, 260,000, it reunited the nation
Chapter 15 Assessment 1. B, 2. A, 3. B
Chapter 15 Section 4 Vocabulary Builder someone’s body is held in prison Checkpoint helped prisoners of war escape, encouraged soldiers to desert, held peace protests Checkpoint hire a substitute, pay $300 dollars, hold more than 20 slaves Checkpoint Clara Barton, Elizabeth Blackwell Check Your Progress 1. People trying to disrupt the war could be put in prison even if they weren’t breaking laws; 2. by filling roles left behind by men (running businesses and farms, working in schools and factories) Notetaking Study Guide Divisions opposed the Emancipation Proclamation, believed the South had a right to secede, blamed Lincoln for forcing the South into war, Copperheads; poor backcountry regions with few enslaved people, Georgia, North Carolina, states’ rights; Disruptions helped prisoners of war escape, tried to prevent men from volunteering, held peace protests, suspending habeas corpus; Draft Laws Desertion, plant or harvest crops, draft, military service, riots; Economic Strains income tax, paper money, increase, shortages, expensive; Women in the Civil War became spies, took over businesses and farms, worked in factories, nursing
Chapter 15 Section 5 Checkpoint Three of the following: Burnside, Hooker, Meade, Grant 26
Chapter 15 Notetaking Guide People changed the war into a struggle for freedom, dashed hopes that Britain would help the South; soldiers, cooks, wagon drivers, hospital aides; disguised themselves as men to join the army, served as spies, worked in factories, operated farms and businesses; Places established that the war would not end quickly; helped the Union control western Tennessee, was the bloodiest day of the Civil War, and Lee’s army escaped, Union control of the Mississippi; Grant trapped Lee, Lee’s soldiers and supplies ran low; Things the North’s capabilities were much greater than the South’s; faster to reload; used to help Union gain control of Mississippi River; soaring costs, food shortages
Step 1: 1. Confederate attempt to invade North is thwarted, Lee loses one-third of his troops, 2. the last city on the Mississippi River held by the South is taken, 3. Grant keeps pressure on Lee causing losses Lee can’t replace, 4. The South is devastated by total war; Step 2: North: gave northerners a reason to hang on and hope they could eventually win the war; South: drained southern reserves of men and supplies, and led to occupations of large amounts of southern territory; Step 3: Students should complete the topic sentence, stating that the South began to run out of men and supplies to fight with, while the North gained confidence that it could win. Students should then write supporting sentences that synthesize the information in Steps 1 and 2.
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Chapter 16 Section 1 A Reading Strategy underline: much of the South lay in ruins, the homeless needed food and shelter, and many in the North and the South had hard feelings toward each other; circle: Reconstruction
Vocabulary Builder Possible answers: mild, merciful Checkpoint Two of the following: rebuilding the South, feeding and sheltering the homeless, reducing hard feelings between North and South Checkpoint to provide emergency relief to people displaced by the Civil War Checkpoint Andrew Johnson Check Your Progress 1. One of the following: Ten Percent Plan required 10% voter loyalty and WadeDavis required 50%, Ten Percent Plan pardoned Confederates and Wade-Davis penalized them; 2. The Freedmen’s Bureau set up schools for African Americans, helped African Americans find jobs, and resolved disputes between blacks and whites
Notetaking Study Guide Wade-Davis Bill: loyalty oath: 50% of voters sign loyalty oath to return to the Union; former Confederates: barred from voting and holding office; The Freedmen’s Bureau: main purpose: to help people displaced by Civil War; examples: set up public schools, helped African Americans find jobs, resolved disputes between blacks and whites; Murder of Abraham Lincoln: shot with a pistol, John Wilkes Booth, nation shocked and concerned about Reconstruction; Vice President Becomes President: Tennessee, Democratic, People thought he would take a strict approach.
Chapter 16 Section 2 Checkpoint Prevent former Confederates from regaining control of Southern politics; make sure freedmen had the right to vote Checkpoint Two of the following: made all people born or naturalized in the United States citizens, prevented states from passing laws to take away a citizen’s rights, stopped states from taking away liberty or property without due process, reduced representation in Congress in cases of denying voting rights to adult males A Reading Strategy underline: Violence directed at African Americans pushed Congress to adopt a stricter form of Reconstruction called Radical Reconstruction; circle: By June of 1868, all of these states had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment and written new constitutions
Vocabulary Builder slavery, the condition of being a slave or a serf Checkpoint threw out governments of states that refused to adopt the Fourteenth Amendment; imposed military rule on those states Check Your Progress 1. states to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, amnesty to most Confederates, and OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
southern states to form new governments and elect representatives to Congress; 2. Any three of the following: African Americans gained role in politics, public schools opened in southern states, evenly spread taxation, property rights to women, passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments Notetaking Study Guide Reconstruction: Johnson’s Plan: elect representatives; Congress: form plan for the South, Civil Rights Act; Johnson: vetoed, Freedmen’s Bureau; Congress: overturned, 14th Amendment; Radical Reconstruction: Actions of the Radicals: 14th Amendment, write new constitutions, ratify 14th Amendment, African Americans, public schools, scalawags, carpetbaggers, freedmen, taxes, property rights, President Johnson, 15th Amendment, race, color; Responses to Radicals: Ulysses S. Grant, Ku Klux Klan/ secret societies
Chapter 16 Section 3 Checkpoint Two of the following: Northerners lost faith in Republicans and their policies; Democrats regained power in the South; election of Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876 A Reading Strategy underline: With the end of Reconstruction, African Americans began losing their remaining political and civil rights in the South; circle two of the following: poll tax, literacy test
Checkpoint poll tax; literacy test Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary, but should demonstrate an understanding of the word menial: low, fit for servants. Checkpoint weather conditions, price fluctuations Checkpoint Any three of the following: agriculture, textiles, iron, timber, oil, tobacco Check Your Progress 1. African Americans’ right to vote and ability to get skilled jobs was restricted. They became subject to unequal segregation; 2. recovery of agriculture and the development of new industries that used the South’s natural resources Notetaking Study Guide African Americans’ Rights: literacy test, poll tax, Jim Crow, segregation; Freedmen in Poverty: sharecroppers, share of crop, weather; Reconstruction’s Conclusion: amnesty for former Confederates, Rutherford B. Hayes; Industrial Growth in the South: raw materials, finished products; textile; iron, timber, oil
Chapter 16 Assessment OL 1. D, 2. D, 3. C, 4. A A 1. C, 2. B, 3. C, 4. A
Step 1: columns should include two of the following: Johnson’s Plan: amnesty to most Confederates, states organize new governments, states elect members of Congress, states pass 13th Amendment; Radical Reconstruction: state governments disbanded, military rule of states, states write new constitutions, states pass
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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14th Amendment, states allow African American men to vote; Step 2: Answers will vary but should show that students recognize that a) Johnson’s plan reveals a desire for a speedy reunion and a trust that the South will adhere to the meaning of the 13th amendment and b) Radical Reconstruction reveals a deep distrust of the South and a belief that change had to be forced on the South; Step 3: Topic sentence should be completed to show that supporters of Johnson’s Plan have greater trust in the South than supporters of Radical Reconstruction. Supporting sentences should give evidence supporting this position.
Chapter 16 Notetaking Study Guide
The United States Before the Civil War Political: new parties formed to focus on slavery issues; Economic: North more industrial and urban, South dependent on cotton and enslaved labor; Social: South: many African Americans enslaved, North: reform movements spurred by antislavery feelings; The United States After the Civil War Economic: the South was physically destroyed and economically ruined, sharecropping system begins, new industries begin in the South; Political: 14th Amendment guaranteed equal rights to African Americans, 15th Amendment barred states from denying African Americans the right to vote, African Americans hold political office, black codes in the South; Social: new opportunities for women to work, new opportunities for African Americans, freedmen need education and jobs, segregation and other discriminatory practices take hold in the South Answer Key
Vocabulary Builder Possible answer: a sudden increase in something Checkpoint boarding houses, restaurants, laundries Checkpoint Central Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad Check Your Progress 1. one of the richest silver mines in the world, 2.The government gave them land grants for every mile of track laid. Notetaking Study Guide The Discovery of Gold and Silver in the West The Comstock Lode silver mines in the world; mining; The Boom Spreads the ore was deep underground and difficult to extract; a big business; Life in Mining Towns foreign-born; law, order, vigilantes, hunted down bandits, imposed their own justice; government; closed, moved away, failed, left; The Railroad Boom Aid to Railroads federal government, subsidies, grants of land or money; federal loans; The Transcontinental Railroad spans the continent; Central Pacific, Sacramento, Union Pacific, Omaha; Chinese; 1869, Promontory, Utah; Effects of the Railroads led to rapid population growth; Nevada, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming became states
Chapter 17 Section 2 Checkpoint Women: managed village life; Men: were hunters and warriors and led religious life Checkpoint Sand Creek Massacre A Reading Strategy because the Battle of Little Bighorn ended in the death of Custer and his men, and shortly after, the Sioux and Cheyenne lost their fight
Checkpoint Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse
Unit 5 Pulling It Together
A Reading Strategy Underline: Only big companies had the machinery to mine the ore deep underground; Circle: By the 1880s, western mining had become big business.
Checkpoint Battle of Wounded Knee Checkpoint gave Native American men 160 acres of land, set up schools Check Your Progress 1. introduction of guns and horses allowed Indians to kill more game and travel faster and farther, settlers moved onto Native American lands; 2. few Native Americans took to farming and remained poor Notetaking Study Guide Native Americans in the West People of the Plains horses, guns; following the buffalo herds; Broken Treaties following the buffalo, settle permanently; Fort Laramie, protect Native American lands, settlers moved onto Native Americans’ lands; Colonel John Chivington, Cheyennes, Sand Creek; Sand Creek Massacre; Native American Resistance poor soil in Oklahoma made farming difficult; Black Hills, South Dakota, gold strike, miners, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse; General George Armstrong Custer, Little
Rebuilding a Nation: the homeless needed food and shelter, many in the North and South felt hatred towards each other; Lincoln’s Plan: abolition of slavery by state governments, former Confederates that swear loyalty pardoned; Radical Republican Plan: loyalty oath from 50% of state’s voters, abolition of slavery by state governments, Confederate volunteers barred from voting and holding office; provide emergency relief to people displaced by war; Battle Over Reconstruction: Johnson’s Plan offered amnesty to former Confederates, allowed Southern states to elect representatives to Congress; Radical Republican Goals prevent former Confederates from regaining control of southern politics, protect freedmen and guarantee them the right to vote; Radical Reconstruction: The Reconstruction Act of 1867, African Americans, property rights, public schools, taxes, voting rules; End of Reconstruction: withdrawal of troops from the South, the election of Rutherford B. Hayes; a poll tax, literacy tests; recover, raw materials
Chapter 17 Section 1
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Bighorn; Nez Percés, Canada, caught the Nez Percés near Canada, surrendered; Navajos, Pecos River; Ghost Dance, ancestors, buffalo, white people, uprising, Sitting Bull, 200, Wounded Knee; Efforts at Reform Dawes, 160 acres to farm, schools for Native American children; took to farming
Chapter 17 Section 3 Checkpoint longhorns Checkpoint chaps, spurs, cowboy hats Vocabulary Builder to change in appearance or nature Checkpoint Native Americans were forced onto reservations, big companies ran mining and ranching, cow towns were became quieter Checkpoint bad weather, farmers fenced in the open range, depression lowered demand for beef Check Your Progress 1. because they had to drive them to railroad towns, and the railroad was hundreds of miles away; 2. It showed a Wild West that was disappearing as Native Americans were put on reservations, big companies took over mining and cattle, and cow towns were quieting down. Notetaking Study Guide 1. markets, Chisholm, Goodnight-Loving; 2. Cow towns, dance halls, saloons, hotels, restaurants; 3. Spanish, Mexican, vaqueros; 4. William “Buffalo Bill” Cody, Wild West; 5. Cause: Profits, diseases, meat; Effect: millions, huge cattle companies; 6. collapsed; 7. cattle drives, was over
Vocabulary Builder a house and the land surrounding it that someone owns Checkpoint live on the land for 5 years, farm the land Checkpoint the thick sod that had to be removed, having to dig deep for water Checkpoint 2 million acres A Reading Strategy 1867: The National Grange is formed; 1870s and 1880s: Grangers demand the same low rates from railroads and warehouses that big farmers got; 1892: Farmers and labor unions join to form the Populist Party; 1896: Populism fades away after Populist candidate William Jennings Bryan lost the 1896 presidential election
Checkpoint Two of the following: public ownership of railroads and warehouses to control rates, an income tax to replace property taxes, an eight-hour workday, the government to back the dollar with silver as well as gold Check Your Progress 1. More farmers meant more shipping by rail, which meant more money for railroads; 2. the same low rates from railroads and grain warehouses that big farmers received Notetaking Study Guide Homestead Act of 1862 settlers who acquired free land from the government; OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Railroads shipping for the railroads, some of the 180 million acres they got from the government; New Farming Methods drills, reapers, threshers; Farm Families Role of men: labored on the farm; Role of children: tended animals and helped with chores; Role of women: kept house, helped plant and harvest, educated children, nursed the sick, sewed clothes, preserved food, made basics such as candles and soaps; Exodusters African Americans, they believed they were like the Jews fleeing from slavery in Egypt in the book of Exodus in the Bible; Spanish-speaking Farmers the Mexican-American War, railroads, ricos; Sooners Indian Territory, Oklahoma, had already sneaked on the land; Farmers Organize joined to form the National Grange, the same low rates from railroads and warehouses given to big farmers; make large purchases of tools, seed, and other supplies at a discount; labor unions, social reforms
Chapter 17 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. B, 3. B, 4. D A 1. C, 2. B, 3. A
Step 1: Fort Laramie Treaty U.S. protection of Native American lands; Plains nations to stop following buffalo; The U.S. broke the treaty; Sand Creek Massacre Native Americans protested the broken treaty by attacking supply trains and settlers’ homes; In response, Colonel John Chivington attacked and killed a band of Cheyenne that had already surrendered; The massacre helped ignite an era of war; Step 2: a struggle over land between settlers and Native Americans. Step 3: Answers will vary, but they should present a logical conclusion and include information from Steps 1 and 2.
Chapter 17 Notetaking Study Guide Mining and Railroads new towns sprang up along rail lines; Effects on Native Americans Railroad expansion and the buffalo: feed their crews, buffalo robes drew high prices; Buffalo herd began to shrink; Westward settlement reservations; Cattle Kingdoms Effect of railroads: gave ranchers a way to deliver their cattle to distant markets; Reasons the cattle industry boomed: high profits for ranchers; new breeds of cattle that had fewer diseases and more meat; Reasons the cattle boom ended: spells of bad weather, decline in demand, competition with sheep made farmers fence in the open range; Reason cattle drives ended: as railroads expanded, their lines moved closer to ranches; Farming in the West Railroads promoted farming by giving away land they had received from the government; Farm groups pushed for silver standard: With more money circulating, they hoped it would lead to a rise in prices, including grain prices, which would help them pay off their debts; they argued that inflation would ruin the economy; gold standard prevailed with the election of William McKinley
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Chapter 18 Section 1 A Reading Strategy circle policy or government policy
Checkpoint westward expansion, government policy, new technology Checkpoint telegraph, telephone, typewriter Vocabulary Builder Possible answer: to change Checkpoint automobile, airplane Check Your Progress 1. Government gave land grants to railroads and businesses and placed high tariffs on imports, which raised their prices; 2. He perfected a system to mass produce cars by using the assembly line. Notetaking Study Guide Factors Leading to the Industrial Boom Westward expansion iron, lead, copper; lumber, building; Government policies land grants, subsidies, railroads, businesses; tariffs, foreign goods; Railroads people, goods; Inventions That Spurred Industry, Business, and Transportation Oil refining methods lubricants for machines, gasoline to power engines and automobiles; Electrical power plant Thomas Edison, 1882, New York City; light bulb, phonograph, motion picture camera; Telegraph American businesses; Underwater telegraph Europe; Telephone Alexander Graham Bell, 1876; the human voice; Typewriter faster, cheaper; Automobile freer, faster; Assembly line Henry Ford, 1913, automobiles (or cars); Gas-powered airplane Wilbur and Orville Wright, 1903; military, World War I
Chapter 18 Section 2 Checkpoint railroads, steel
Checkpoint Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller Checkpoint to cut costs, to increase production, to ensure survival of the business A Reading Strategy The Knights of Labor admitted both skilled and unskilled workers, while the American Federation of Labor admitted only skilled workers.
Checkpoint unsafe working conditions, low wages, long hours Check Your Progress 1. Some believed that the practices of big business threatened free enterprise. Others believed big business was good because it expanded the economy, created jobs, and kept prices low; 2. Most Americans saw labor unions as radical after several strikes turned violent. Notetaking Study Guide Big Business Corporation selling stock; board of directors; investors; a share of the profits; Trust board of directors; many of the nation’s key industries; Social Darwinism; Monopoly most or all business in a particular industry; Banks grow faster; the 30
Chapter 18 Section 3 Checkpoint suburbs were created, skyscrapers were built, living patterns changed A Reading Strategy Possible problem/solution combinations: fire was a constant threat/cities set up fire departments; cholera outbreaks were common/ public health officials waged war on disease; sanitation was perhaps the worst problem/cities set up sanitation departments, etc.
Checkpoint three of the following: overcrowding, poor sanitation, disease, fire Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but should demonstrate an understanding that leisure has do with what one does in his or her free time. Checkpoint three of the following: department stores, museums, orchestras, theatres, circuses, city parks, zoos, gardens, and sporting events Check Your Progress 1. The poor crowded into the old downtown parts of cities. The middle class lived in the outlying houses and apartments. The wealthy lived in fine homes on the outskirts of the city; 2. They helped poor people by teaching English to immigrants and providing entertainment for young people and nurseries for children of working mothers. Notetaking Study Guide Growth of Cities Urbanization city populations; industry provided jobs in cities; the department store, sold many kinds of goods in one store; shopping, museums, orchestras, art galleries, theatres, parks, circuses, sporting events; Expanding Cities streetcars, elevated trains; suburbs, steel bridges; skyscrapers, tenements; Living Patterns poor families, the rich; Urban Problems and Solutions Problems of Urban Life those in overcrowded neighborhoods; bleak (or crowded); littered, garbage; poor sanitation; Solutions to Problems Provided by cities: installed street lights, set up fire, sanitation, and police departments, waged war on disease; Provided by religious groups: set up hospitals and clinics for the poor, gave food, clothing, and shelter to the homeless; Provided by reformers: set up settlement houses, where volunteers helped the poor by teaching immigrants English, sponsoring music and sports for young people, and providing nurseries for children of working mothers
Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but should demonstrate an understanding that the word monopoly means that many businesses in an industry are controlled by one person or company.
American economy; Andrew Carnegie the rich had a duty to improve society; John D. Rockefeller oil refinery; the Standard Oil Trust, ended competition in the oil industry; Debate over big business Arguments for: built up the economy, created jobs; Arguments against: threat to free enterprise, business leaders used their wealth to influence politicians; Workplace Conditions and Labor Unions Workplace low; often dangerous; pay compensation; Labor Unions higher wages, shorter hours; Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor
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Chapter 18 Section 4 Checkpoint Answers should include three of the following: southern Europe, eastern Europe, Asia, the Pacific Checkpoint two thirds Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary but should demonstrate an understanding that immigrants struggled to become similar to other Americans. Checkpoint Alexander Graham Bell Checkpoint Excluding Chinese laborers from the United States, requiring those wishing to immigrate to the country to be able to read their own language
Check Your Progress 1. They were surrounded by English-speakers in school and could learn the new language more quickly; 2. Nativists believed that immigrants would never assimilate and that they took jobs from Americans. Notetaking Study Guide Reasons for Migration religious, pogroms, revolution in Mexico, eastern Europe, Asia; Starting New Lives Ellis Island, Angel Island, cities, their own languages, familiar holidays; Becoming American becoming part of another culture, they were surrounded by native English speakers at school and at play; steel mills, meat-packing plants, mines, garment sweatshops; skyscrapers, subways, bridges, railroads; opening small businesses (or by hard work and saving); Graham Bell, Carnegie, Goldwyn, Mayer, Toscanini, Baekeland; A New Wave of Nativism preserve the United States for native-born Americans, Americans, anarchy, violence, crimes, excluded Chinese laborers from the United States, read their own language
Notetaking Study Guide Better-Educated Americans the nation needed an educated workforce, South, North, West, 1918, writing, arithmetic, State universities, public libraries, lectures on a wide variety of subjects, sending out traveling companies on a wide circuit; Americans Read More Books and Magazines Realists writers who tried to show life as it is, Stephen Crane wrote about the hardships of city slums, Kate Chopin wrote about an unhappily married woman, Paul Dunbar first African American to make a living as a writer (or described the joys and sorrows of black life), Mark Twain made his stories realistic by capturing the speech patterns of southerners along the Mississippi River; A Newspaper Boom Causes urbanization; New York World masscirculation, Joseph Pulitzer, prices, afford, color comics, sensational headlines, yellow journalism
Chapter 18 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. C, 3. A, 4. D A 1. B, 2. C, 3. A, 4. C
Step 1: Changes to Cities: Answers could include rapid population growth, growth of industries, advances in public transportation, the growth of suburbs, and the construction of bridges and skyscrapers; Effect on City Dwellers: Answers could include the movement of rural people, immigrants, and African Americans to cities; the ability of people to travel longer distances every day to work; the pattern of poor people living in inner cities, middle-class people farther out, and rich people on the outskirts; the problems of fire and poor sanitation, and the attractions and leisure activities in the city. Step 2: Answers should accurately incorporate lists from Step 1. Step 3: Students should choose a position on whether the changes were positive or negative and support that position with details from Steps 1 and 2.
Chapter 18 Section 5 Vocabulary Builder Answers will vary, but should demonstrate an understanding that compulsory means that education is required. Checkpoint southern states Checkpoint three of the following: Stephen Crane, Jack London, Kate Chopin, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Mark Twain A Reading Strategy Answers will vary but should
demonstrate understanding that a “newspaper boom” takes place when newspapers become much more popular. Checkpoint lower-priced newspapers, color comics, sensational headlines Check Your Progress 1. The nation’s growing industry required a more educated workforce; 2. The newspaper industry boomed because people were becoming better educated, and people in cities depended on newspapers to stay informed. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Chapter 18 Notetaking Study Guide Industrial Growth Caused by coal, iron, lead, copper, lumber; land grants, railroads, tariffs, more expensive; Bessemer, steel, Oil; Trains (or railroads), factories; Furthered by Inventions Four of the following: telegraph, telephone, typewriter, mass-produced automobile, airplane; Supported by Labor from Immigration southern Europe, eastern Europe, Mexico, Asia, and the Pacific; jobs, political unrest; assimilate; steel mills, meat-packing plants, mines, garment factories; skyscrapers, railroads, subways, bridges; Growth of Cities fires, disease; Three of the following: museums; sporting events; circuses; parks, art galleries, theatres; orchestras; The Rise of Big Business Corporations are businesses owned by many investors. A trust is a group of corporations run by a single board of directors; long hours at low pay and dangerous conditions; improve working conditions; Improved Educational System the nation’s growing industry needed a more educated workforce, newspapers
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Chapter 19 Section 1
Chapter 19 Section 3
Vocabulary Builder Students should note that the surface glitter (rapid economic growth) hid falseness underneath (corruption and other problems in society).
Checkpoint three of the following: primary, recall, initiative, referendum Checkpoint muckrakers Check Your Progress 1. the spoils system, 2. Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to pass an income tax, Seventeenth Amendment required the direct election of U.S. senators Notetaking Study Guide Reform in the Gilded Age Two Political Concerns of the Gilded Age corruption; Reforming the Spoils System rewarded, government jobs, Pendleton Act, Civil Service Commission; Controlling Big Business rebates, Interstate Commerce Commission, prohibit big business from limiting or destroying competition; Corruption: A Serious Problem in City Government bosses, bribes; Progressives and Political Reform The Progressive Movement Wisconsin, Robert La Follette, commissions, voters, initiative, referendum; Constitutional Amendments pass an income tax, Seventeenth Amendment; Muckrakers crusading journalist, corruption, Ida Tarbell, Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair
Chapter 19 Section 2
Checkpoint More women worked and wanted a say in laws affecting them. A Reading Strategy Students should circle: pushed for laws to protect women and children, to ensure pure foods and drugs, and to win the right to vote; sought to end segregation and violence against African Americans; supported the women’s suffrage movement; fought for safe working conditions and organized a boycott of manufacturers who used child labor; entered the field of social work, helping poor city-dwellers
Checkpoint Frances Willard, Carry Nation Check Your Progress 1. several Western states, recognized the contributions of pioneer women; 2. from improving their minds to improving society Notetaking Study Guide Women’s Suffrage constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote; Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony; Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho; worked outside the home, a say in making laws; Carrie Chapman Catt, Alice Paul; win suffrage state by state; gave women the right to vote; New Opportunities women’s knowledge; libraries, schools, parks; protect women and children, ensure pure food and drugs, win the vote; African American women; Temperance alcohol; ban on the sale of liquor, Frances Willard, Carry Nation; 1919, ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol
Checkpoint the first case in which the Supreme Court used the Sherman Antitrust Act to break up a trust
Chapter 19 Section 4
Checkpoint two of the following: putting limits on big business, conservation, consumer protection
Checkpoint stop lynching of African Americans
Roosevelt, favored a graduated income tax, approved new mine safety rules, and started to regulate child labor.
Checkpoint provided insurance, provided legal advice, collected money for the sick and needy
Checkpoint Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, Federal Reserve Act
A Reading Strategy circle: When San Francisco forced all Asians into segregated schools, Japan protested. Unions and other groups wanted President Roosevelt to limit Japanese immigration.
Check Your Progress 1. created the U.S. Forest Service, created national parks; 2. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote.
Checkpoint Japan stopped more workers from moving to the U.S., the U.S. allowed Japanese women to join their husbands in the U.S.
Notetaking Study Guide Theodore Roosevelt President McKinley was assassinated; break up; trusts; the Sherman Antitrust Act was used to break up a trust; the President sided with striking workers; everyone should have the same opportunity to succeed; protection of natural resources; the U.S. Forest Service, thousands of acres, national parks; Pure Food and Drug Act; William Howard Taft quiet, cautious, wary of power; income tax; raised tariffs, conservation; Progressive or Bull Moose Party; split the Republican vote; Woodrow Wilson governor, cautious reformer, New Freedom, Clayton Antitrust Act, Federal Reserve Act
Checkpoint Catholics, Jews
Check Your Progress 1. Washington: African Americans should learn trades and move up gradually in society, Du Bois: Blacks should fight discrimination rather than yield to it; 2. They lived in barrios. Notetaking Study Guide Struggles for Justice African Americans Tuskegee Institute; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), fight discrimination; Ida B. Wells, murder by a mob; Mexican Americans African Americans, segregation; revolution, famine; ethnic Mexican American neighborhoods; mutualistas, insurance, legal advice; Asian Americans
A Reading Strategy circle: Taft broke up more trusts than
Vocabulary Builder worse
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100,000; Hawaii, sugar plantations; San Francisco, schools; “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” workers, Japanese women to join their husbands in the United States; Religious Minorities Nativist, Jews, Catholics, jobs, housing; parochial, Anti-Defamation League, antiSemitism
Chapter 20 Section 1 Checkpoint Commodore Matthew C. Perry, Secretary of State William Seward Checkpoint Possible answer: Imperialism would give more access to natural resources and world markets.
Chapter 19 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. D, 3. C A 1. B, 2. B, 3. C
Checkpoint Hawaii, part of Samoa
Step 1: Description: a set of progressive reforms of state government introduced by Wisconsin governor Robert La Follette. Goals: stop corruption, promote the public interest; Step 2: Primary: an election in which voters, rather than party leaders, choose the party’s candidate for an election; Initiative: a process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature; Recall: a process by which people may vote to remove an elected official from office; Referendum: a way for people to vote directly on a proposed law; Step 3: Students should complete the topic sentence, stating that the goal of the Wisconsin Idea was to serve the public interest. Students should then write supporting sentences that explain how two of the four the reforms met the Wisconsin Idea’s goal.
conditions in factories, crowded cities full of immigrants and other workers
The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform corruption, government; spoils system; Efforts to Control Big Business Interstate Commerce Act, Sherman Antitrust Act; Political Reforms Sixteenth Amendment, Seventeenth Amendment; Progressive Presidents Roosevelt Square Deal; conservation, national parks; Taft quiet and cautious, wary of power; Wilson cautious, rigid, reformer; to restore free competition among American corporations Rights of Women Two of the following: Carrie Chapman Catt, Alice Paul, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony; Nineteenth Amendment; Struggles for Justice Tuskegee Institute; learn trade and earn money then demand equality; NAACP; urged blacks to fight discrimination rather than submit to it; ethnic Mexican neighborhoods to preserve language and culture; Japanese stop workers from entering the United States, and United States allows Japanese women to join their husbands in the United States; Catholics, Jews
Checkpoint The Chinese hated foreign influence. Check Your Progress 1. The United States acquired Alaska, Hawaii, and part of Samoa. 2. The United States’s new trading partners were Japan and China. Notetaking Study Guide Japan: blocked outside trade, barred foreigners from entering or leaving the country; Commodore Perry, Tokyo Bay; powerful ships, menacing guns; signed a treaty opening Japan for trade; Alaska: William Seward, Russia, $7.2 million; Seward’s Folly or Seward’s Icebox, frozen wasteland; valuable discoveries of gold, Klondike and Alaska gold rushes; The Expansionist Mood: expansionism, isolationism; Frederick Jackson Turner, frontier; foreign markets, resources; trade, powerful navy; Christian values, western civilization; Gaining Footholds in the Pacific: Pacific islands; Samoa: Germany, Britain; typhoon, Germany, the United States; Hawaii: planters; Liliuokalani; make Hawaii a U.S. territory; The Boxer Rebellion: expel foreigners, crushed the rebellion; Secretary of State John Hay issued a second Open Door Policy to preserve trade and keep foreign nations from dividing China into separate pieces
Chapter 20 Section 2 Vocabulary Builder to come between the Cuban rebels and the Spanish Checkpoint Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst Checkpoint Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico A Reading Check Students should circle “The United States replaced Spain as a colonial power in the Caribbean.” Arrows should be drawn to “This amendment limited Cuba’s power and made it a U.S. protectorate,” “The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Rico limited self-rule,” and “Emilio Aguinaldo led a revolt against U.S. rule.”
Unit 6 Pulling It Together
Checkpoint Emilio Aguinaldo
Growth of U.S. Industry Inventions: electric power plants, telephone, typewriter, sewing machine; Transportation: railroads, automobiles, airplanes; Other Industries: farming, steel, oil; Industrialization’s Impact on the Nation markets needed goods that were produced in factories; immigrants arrived seeking jobs, new kinds of transportation—trains and automobiles, new technology to build skyscrapers; big business grows and expands its influence, difficult and dangerous working
Check Your Progress 1. They were eager to open new businesses and to spread the idea of democratic government. 2. The United States acquired Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and the Pacific islands of Guam and Wake.
OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Notetaking Study Guide (Row 1) reconcentration; (Row 2) Americans called for the U.S. government to intervene in Cuba; (Row 3) wrote sensational stories about Spanish cruelty; sinking the U.S. battleship Maine
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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and killing 260 men; (Row 4) Manila Bay, Philippines; Emilio Aguinaldo; (Row 5) Spain surrendered Cuba two weeks later; (Row 6) Cuban independence; Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island; Spain $20 million; (Row 7) abilities to make treaties or borrow money; the right to intervene in Cuban affairs; keep a base at Guantánamo Bay; (Row 8) limited self-rule; (Row 9) Emilio Aguinaldo, came to an end
Chapter 20 Section 3 Checkpoint The United States hoped that an independent Panama would accept its offer for land to build a canal. A Reading Strategy Sample question: When did work on the Panama Canal begin and end? Sample Answer: 1904, 1914
Checkpoint disease Vocabulary Builder A successor is someone who follows another, taking the same position. Checkpoint the Monroe Doctrine Checkpoint to support and nurture democracy around the world Check Your Progress 1. It would improve global shipping and make it easier to defend the United States’s possessions. 2. If diplomacy failed, he would not hesitate to use force.
Chapter 20 Assessment OL 1. D, 2. D, 3. B A 1. C, 2. B, 3. B
Step 1: Japan: opened up trade; Alaska: purchased from Russia; Hawaii: annexed as U.S. territory; China: defeated the Boxers; Cuba: freed from Spanish rule; Panama: supported revolt from Colombia; Mexico: pursued Pancho Villa; Step 2: Peaceful: Japan, Alaska, Hawaii; Military: China, Cuba, Panama, Mexico; Step 3: Students’ answers may be similar to the following: Between 1853 and 1915, U.S. actions were sometimes peaceful and sometimes militant. The United States opened up trade with Japan and China, but its Open 34
Chapter 20 Notetaking Study Guide Commodore Perry’s Mission to Japan: trade; set out to transform its feudal society into an industrial nation; The purchase of Alaska and the annexation of Hawaii: William Seward, Asia, Pacific; It could serve as a military and commercial outpost in the Pacific; American planters staged an uprising in 1893, and President McKinley supported a treaty to achieve annexation; Open Door Policy in China: called for the right of all nations to trade with China on an equal basis; repeated the principle of free trade and said China should not be broken up; Spanish-American War: American investments in Cuba; Spain accepted Cuban independence and granted the United States Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island in return for $20 million; Panama Canal: Colombia; Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean; Foreign Relations under Theodore Roosevelt: the use of military force if diplomacy failed; the United States had the right to intervene in conflicts between its neighbors and foreign powers; Foreign Relations under Taft: dollar diplomacy; a policy based on the idea that economic ties were the best way to expand American influence; Foreign Relations under Wilson: support and nurture democracy throughout the world; Mexico
Chapter 21 Section 1 Checkpoint the Allies, the Central powers Checkpoint airplanes, tanks, rapid-fire guns, heavy artillery, trench warfare, poison gas Checkpoint German Americans, Irish Americans Checkpoint the Russian Revolution Check Your Progress 1. the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand; 2. the Zimmermann Telegram; sinking of American ships by German U-boats; Russian Revolution that overthrew the Russian tsar Notetaking Study Guide Prior to June 1914: militarism, nationalism; Central powers, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire; Allies, Britain, Russia; June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austro-Hungarian throne; July 29, 1914: Serbia; July 31, 1914: mobilizes its armed forces; August 1, 1914: Russia; August 3, 1914: France; August 4, 1914: neutral Belgium, Great Britain; May 1915: Lusitania, U-boats would no longer target passenger liners and neutral merchant ships; November 1916: President Wilson, “He kept us out of war”; February 1917: Zimmermann Telegram, Germany proposed that Mexico join the war on Germany’s side in return for help in reconquering new Mexico, Texas, and Arizona; sink three American merchant ships; Russian
Notetaking Study Guide The United States and Panama: Pacific, Atlantic; Colombia, permanent use and control of a 10-mile wide zone across the Isthmus of Panama; $10 million plus $250,000 a year in rent; Panama Canal, 1914; Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy: would not hesitate to use force if diplomacy failed; military force; Roosevelt Corollary, Monroe Doctrine; exercise an international police power to restore order in disputes between U.S. neighbors and foreign nations; Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy: economic ties; invested heavily in Asia and Latin America; Nicaragua, Haiti, Honduras; Wilson’s Foreign Policy: support and nurture democracy throughout the world; “watchful waiting’’; American sailors were arrested in Tampico; Pancho Villa’s rebels raided and burned the town of Columbus, New Mexico; sending soldiers into Mexico to pursue Villa
Door Policy did not extend to Latin America, which it claimed the right to protect from European nations. The Spanish-American War gave the United States an empire in the Caribbean and the Pacific, and the United States dug the Panama Canal to greatly shorten shipping times and help protect that empire.
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Revolution overthrows Tsar Nicholas II; April 1917: Congress to declare war, “safe for democracy”
Chapter 21 Section 2 Checkpoint women, African Americans, and Native Americans Checkpoint Food Administration, War Industries Board A Reading Strategy Students should underline “In
contrast.” Vocabulary Builder People needed to comply with prowar behavior and show support for the war. Checkpoint Espionage Act of 1917, Sedition Act of 1918
Check Your Progress 1. The Selective Service Act recruited soldiers by requiring men between ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft. 2. “Four-Minute Men” gave patriotic speeches, artists produced pro-war cartoons and posters; movie stars sold war bonds. Notetaking Study Guide Building the Military: Congress passed the Selective Service Act; the ages of 21 and 30, register for the draft; volunteered; win the vote; Native Americans, African Americans; educator, it taught them to read and write, eat better, and practice better hygiene; Managing the War Effort: Food Administration, make sure there was enough food for the military and civilians; victory gardens, provide food for their own tables; War Industries Board, war production; the rise in the number of men in the military, labor shortage; African Americans; Shaping Public Opinion: “FourMinute Men”; patriotic speeches at movie theaters and ballparks; artists, pro-war cartoons and posters, sell war bonds; Espionage Act of 1917, Sedition Act of 1918, closed newspapers and jailed people for expressing antiwar opinions; American Protective League, snoop on their neighbors
Chapter 21 Section 3 Checkpoint The United States provided soldiers and supplies. A Reading Strategy Students should underline “The treaty gave Germany about 30 percent of Russia’s territory. Peace with Russia allowed Germany to move a huge number of troops to the Western Front.”
Checkpoint Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Vocabulary Builder Wilhelm II abdicated his throne or kingship. Checkpoint Britain and France Check Your Progress 1. A revolution occurred in Russia, and the new leader wanted to devote time to steering the country toward communism. 2. Germany had to pull its troops back from the Western Front, cancel the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and surrender its U-boats. Germany also became a republic instead of an absolute monarchy. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Notetaking Study Guide Americans at War: Effects: 1. U.S. supplies cannot get to the Allies; Allies develop the convoy system to protect merchant ships; 2. American troops are not allowed to integrate with Allied units; 3. American troops lifted French morale; 4. Treaty allows Germans to move many more troops to the Western Front; 5. Pershing puts all American resources under French command; 6. German defenses crumble; Germany requests an armistice; Terms of armistice: Germany required to pull back its troops on the Western Front; Germany had to cancel the Treaty of BrestLitovsk; Germany had to hand over its entire fleet of Uboats; Kaiser Wilhelm II forced to abdicate throne; War Dead Military Total: about 10 million; France: about 1.3 million; Britain: 900,000; Germany: about 1.6 million; Russia: about 1.7 million; American: about 50,000; Civilian: no one knows for sure, some historians believe civilian deaths equaled military deaths
Chapter 21 Section 4 Checkpoint reduce causes of war, territorial issues, peacekeeping body Checkpoint Wilson (the United States), Lloyd George (Britain), Clemenceau (France), Orlando (Italy) Checkpoint Henry Cabot Lodge Vocabulary Builder communism Checkpoint influenza epidemic, unemployment and labor strikes, fear of Communists Check Your Progress 1. Britain, France, and Italy made secret agreements to split up German colonies and Ottoman lands, and they were determined to punish Germany. 2. Wilson wanted to make sure his plan for a peacekeeping organization was included in the treaty. Notetaking Study Guide Shaping the Peace: Woodrow Wilson; Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando; What Eventually Resulted: Britain, France, and Italy signed secret agreements dividing the territories and colonies of the Central Powers; Britain and France demanded Germany pay huge reparations and other punishments; Hungary, Czechoslovakia; formed Yugoslavia; became independent; Republic of Turkey; Germany’s African colonies, as well as the Middle Eastern lands of the Ottoman Empire; The League of Nations was created; The U.S. Senate votes against it; U.S. Opposition to the Treaty of Versailles: Henry Cabot Lodge, League of Nations, he felt the League would limit the United States’s ability to act independently in its own interests; rally public support for the League, failed
Chapter 21 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. A, 3. D A 1. C, 2. B, 3. C
Step 1: Germany: Pre-War Colonies: in Africa and the Pacific; Post-War Changes: Lost African colonies; Austria-Hungary: Pre-War Colonies: Czechoslovakia, the
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Balkans, Poland; Post-War Changes: Lost Czechoslovakia, the Balkans, and Poland; Became the separate countries of Austria and Hungary; Ottoman Empire: Pre-War Colonies: Middle Eastern lands; Post-War Changes: Lost most of its Middle Eastern lands, Became the new Republic of Turkey; Britain: Pre-War Colonies: colonial empire; Post-War Changes: gained half of Germany’s African colonies and some Ottoman Middle Eastern lands; France: Pre-War Colonies: colonies in West Africa and West Indies; Post-War Changes: gained half of German’s African colonies and some Ottoman Middle Eastern lands; Step 2: Gained Self-determination: Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Republic of Turkey; Did Not Gain Self-determination: Germany’s African colonies, Ottoman Empire’s Middle Eastern lands; Step 3: Topic sentences and supporting sentences will vary. Students’ answers may be similar to the following: The Treaty of Versailles allowed some minority peoples of Central Europe to determine their own government, but not all. The minority peoples of Austria-Hungary were allowed to form their own governments, but the people of Germany’s African colonies and of the Ottoman Empire’s Middle Eastern lands were not.
Check Your Progress 1. Harding promised a return to “normalcy.” 2. The U.S. government deported many anarchists and Communists, and it restricted immigration.
Chapter 21 Notetaking Study Guide
Checkpoint It gave women the right to vote.
Causes of World War I: Imperialism: Africa and the Pacific; many other peoples in the Balkan region of Central Europe; other nationalities in the Middle East and Africa; Nationalism: Balkan region, AustroHungarian rule; Alliance Systems: Germany, AustriaHungary, Ottoman Empire; Britain, France, Russia; World War I Begins: Archduke Franz Ferdinand; Serbia; Russia; joined forces with Austria-Hungary; Events That Brought America Into the War: remained neutral, Allies; tried to stop U.S. supplies to the British; tried to get Mexico to join forces with the Central powers, sank three American ships; Results of the Allied Victory: Germany; reparations; its colonies in Africa and the Pacific; split into smaller nations; League of Nations; the Treaty, it did not want to join the League of Nations
Checkpoint the movies and the radio
Vocabulary Builder ten Checkpoint failure of the Treaty of Versailles, economic recession, threats of communism Checkpoint The United States participated in disarmament conferences, sponsored the KelloggBriand Pact condemning aggression and outlawing war A Reading Strategy Students should circle “because
they were foreign anarchists”; students should draw an arrow to “They were convicted and executed.” Checkpoint Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti 36
Chapter 22 Section 2 Checkpoint the Eighteenth and the Twenty-first Amendments OL Building Vocabulary Many universities and professional schools did not admit women. In some states, they could not serve on juries or, if they were married, could not keep the money they earned. A Reading Strategy Students should underline “Both,” and should circle “in spite of.”
Checkpoint Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Check Your Progress 1. women’s rights, racial conflicts, old versus new social values; 2. It increased travel and tourism. Notetaking Study Guide Prohibition: grains; Eighteenth Amendment, the making, selling, or transporting of alcohol; enforce; Bootleggers; speakeasy; organized crime; Twenty-first Amendment; Changing Lives of Women: The Nineteenth Amendment; Nellie Tayloe Ross, Miriam “Ma” Ferguson; juries, earnings; “flappers”; A New Mass Culture: assembly line, drop; individual freedom and independence; gas stations, roadside restaurants, cabins, highways; the suburbs, isolated; tourism; KDKA in Pittsburgh; baseball games, political conventions; The Jazz Singer; Social Conflict: religion, scientific theory; Great Migration; Chicago; Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association; black pride and black unity; move permanently to Africa; the Ku Klux Klan
Chapter 22 Section 3 Checkpoint dance marathons, flagpole sitting, mah-jongg A Reading Strategy Sample answer: Jazz, a unique American music from many sources, was first heard in New Orleans but soon spread throughout America.
Notetaking Study Guide Return to Normalcy: the peace treaty at Versailles, recession, strikes, Communists; “return to normalcy”; Andrew Mellon; federal budget; Teapot Dome scandal, Albert B. Fall; Calvin Coolidge; Foreign Policy: isolationism; disarmament; Washington Naval Arms Conference; Kellogg-Briand Pact; Nicaragua, protect American business interests; The Red Scare: communism; revolution was beginning; anarchists, deported; Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, foreigners, anarchists; radicals; eastern and southern Europe; Asia
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Checkpoint with the Great Migration, through radio
Chapter 22 Assessment
Vocabulary Builder A vibrant African American culture with a renewed social criticism arose among the black writers, musicians, and poets.
OL 1. B, 2. B, 3. D, 4. C A 1. C, 2. B, 3. A
Checkpoint F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis Check Your Progress 1. Charles Lindbergh, for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic; 2. Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, and Zora Neale Hurston Notetaking Study Guide Fads: Charleston, Lindy Hop, the Black Bottom, and the Breakaway; dance marathons, flagpole sitting, and the Chinese game mah-jongg; Heroes of the 1920s: Babe Ruth, Johnny Weissmuller; Red Grange; Bobby Jones; Bill Tilden and Helen Wills; Jack Dempsey; Charles Lindbergh, American energy and optimism; Jazz Greats: New Orleans; rhythms from West Africa and the Caribbean, work chants and spirituals from the South, harmonies from Europe; Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington; improvisation, experimentation; Notable Writers: exuberance, excesses, The Great Gatsby, Babbitt; A Farewell to Arms, antiwar sentiments; Harlem Renaissance; racial prejudice; Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Zora Neale Hurston, pride in their race
Chapter 22 Section 4 Checkpoint lower prices, advertising, installment plan
Checkpoint If the value of the stock went down, the buyer would not have any profit from which to pay for the stock. A Reading Strategy Students should underline “farmers were unable to pay their debts.”
Checkpoint Farmers could not sell their surplus abroad because those nations were too poor after the war to pay for the crops. Vocabulary Builder It showed that many poor, rural voters still placed their hopes in the Republican Party. Checkpoint religion and the economy Check Your Progress 1. increase in industrial production and a booming stock market; 2. farmers and many workers Notetaking Study Guide The Economy of the 1920s Industrial Growth: industrial production; prices dropped; Rising incomes; installment buying; mail-order catalogs; consumer; imports; cut; recklessness; A Booming Stock Market: purchase stocks; bull market, buying on margin; the stock market was overvalued; ignored; prosperous; 5 percent; Signs of Trouble Farmers: American public; surplus; debts; Workers: wages; benefits, pensions, paid vacations; high; assembly line; Election of 1928: Republican; Herbert Hoover; Alfred E. Smith; religion and the economy; Hoover; “a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage” OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Step 1: Possible answers include: More people could buy high-priced items, women received the right to vote, predominantly African American music style became widely popular. Step 2: Possible answers include: Many people would not be able to own homes, cars, and other things that make life comfortable; Women would not have a say in politics; America’s musical culture would not be as rich and varied. Step 3: Answers will vary but may be similar to: American culture would be different today if the growth of installment buying, the Nineteenth Amendment, and the birth of jazz had not occurred in the 1920s. Fewer people would own their own homes and cars. There would be no women in government offices. In addition, America’s music would be less rich without the influence of jazz.
Chapter 22 Notetaking Study Guide Results of Change: The Red Scare and Immigration: Thousands of radical anarchists, Communists, and other foreigners are deported from the country; Workers fear immigrants will take their jobs; Congress limits number of immigrants from Europe; prohibits immigration from Asia; Eighteenth Amendment: Drinking declines; alcohol ban increases lawlessness; Nineteenth Amendment: Women participate in politics, but are still restricted in other areas; Automobile: Better roads; travel and tourism increase; Entertainment: Millions enjoy the same radio shows and movies; The Great Migration: Many African Americans move from rural South to urban North; Racial tensions increase, resulting in riots; Ku Klux Klan spreads across the nation; Literature: Many writers become social critics; Black writers in Harlem react to prejudice and express pride in their race; Music: Jazz and jazz musicians become widely popular; Consumer Market: More goods, lower prices, new forms of advertising, installment plans, increased spending; Stock Market: More people investing, buying on margin, fortunes made; Job Market: Farmers in debt, skilled workers losing jobs to assembly lines and unskilled workers, high unemployment
Unit 7 Pulling It Together Territorial Expansion: Alaska and Hawaii: Alaska purchased from Russia in 1868; American planters control Hawaii and it is annexed to the United States in 1898; Pacific Islands: Treaty with Spain in 1898 grants Guam, Wake Islands, and Philippines to the United States; Germany and the U.S. divide up Samoa; Caribbean: Foraker Act puts Puerto Rico under U.S. control; Platt Amendment makes Cuba a protectorate of the United States; Economic Expansion: Japan and China: Commodore Perry opens trade with Japan in 1854; Open Door policy opens trade with China in 1899;
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Alaska and Hawaii: Sugar plantations in Hawaii; Gold and other resources in Alaska; Dollar Diplomacy: President Taft encourages American trade and industry in Asia and Latin America; Panama: Building of Panama Canal increases international trade; Political Expansion: Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine: Allows U.S. intervention in Latin American foreign disputes; Treaty of Versailles: U.S. intervention in World War I allows Wilson to influence conditions of the treaty and spread democracy; Postwar Diplomacy: United States participates in international conferences for disarmament and naval reductions; United States forms the Kellogg-Briand Pact with France to outlaw war
Chapter 23 Section 1 Checkpoint coal mining, railroads, clothing, agriculture Checkpoint because of international loans and trade Vocabulary Builder no jobs or homes, lacked food, schools closed from lack of funds Checkpoint Unemployment rose from 3 to 25 percent, with some 13 million people out of work. Checkpoint He encouraged businesses, local governments, and charities to help people in need. He created a federal agency, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Check Your Progress 1. Overproduction resulted in having more goods being produced than people to buy them and led to the closing of factories and loss of jobs. The banking crisis resulted in banks closing and depositors losing their money. 2. When people lost jobs, they had less money to spend, and that caused a downward spiral of more companies going bankrupt.
Chapter 23 Section 2 Checkpoint fireside chats on the radio Checkpoint Civilian Conservation Corps, Works Progress Administration Checkpoint industry, agriculture Checkpoint to protect bank depositors’ money OL Vocabulary Builder the Supreme Court
Checkpoint Possible answers (any three): the Supreme Court, conservatives, liberals, Senator Huey Long Check Your Progress 1. He declared a “bank holiday” and introduced legislation for the Emergency Banking Relief Act to restore confidence in banks. 2. His three goals were relief for the jobless, economic recovery, and reforms to prevent future depressions. Notetaking Study Guide Roosevelt and the New Deal: 1933; relief for the jobless, economic recovery, economic reform to prevent future depressions; New Deal Measures: Emergency Banking Relief Act: (none), provided more careful government regulation of banks; Federal Emergency Relief Administration: FERA, granted funds to states so they could reopen shuttered relief agencies; Civilian Conservation Corps: CCC, provided jobs by hiring city dwellers to work in national parks; Works Progress Administration: WPA, provided jobs building and repairing buildings, roads, bridges, and airports; also hired artists and writers; National Recovery Administration: NRA, aimed to keep prices stable while boosting employment and buying power; Public Works Administration: PWA, provided jobs by granting money to build large public-works projects; Tennessee Valley Authority: TVA, provided jobs and electricity by building dams on the Tennessee River; Truth-inSecurities Act: required corporations to inform the public fully about their stocks; Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: FDIC, protected bank depositors by guaranteeing individual deposits up to $2,500; Federal Power Commission: FPC, helped control the oil and gas industries; Obstacles to the New Deal: 1936, favored or liked; NRA, unconstitutional; pack; Huey Long, Francis Townsend, Charles Coughlin
Chapter 23 Section 3 Checkpoint She traveled around the country to report conditions to the President and to help him evaluate needs. She also supported women’s rights and racial equality. Checkpoint Whites competed for jobs African Americans traditionally held. African American workers were the first to be let go in layoffs. A Reading Strategy Students should circle “Mexican Americans and Native Americans also faced special challenges”; Students should underline “Mexicans who were migrant workers . . . were threatened by whites who wanted their jobs,” “Many Mexicans, including some who were U.S. citizens, were deported,” and “Native Americans were among the poorest people in the United States before the Depression”
Notetaking Study Guide The Collapsing Economy: in the late 1920s; rising; margin buying; were forced to sell to pay off their loans, and heavy selling caused stock prices to drop further; October 29, 1929; The Great Depression Begins: economic, social; 12, stock market crash; overproduction; banking, farmers could not repay loans and from losses in the stock market crash; they lost their jobs and/or savings in banks; The Human Cost: 3, 25; 13 million; food, shelter, and clothing; poverty and misery across the country; Hoover Responds: nothing, temporary; federal; charities, soup kitchens; Reconstruction Finance Corporation, money; Bonus Army
A Reading Strategy Students should underline “The Supreme Court declared some of his programs unconstitutional”; students should draw an arrow to “FDR tried to “pack” the court by proposing to add six additional judges who would support him”
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Checkpoint Many were migrant workers who picked crops, and unemployed whites wanted their jobs. Checkpoint the southeastern Plains Checkpoint for entertainment (or soap operas), news, and the President’s fireside chats Check Your Progress 1. Women, African Americans, Mexicans/Mexican Americans, Native Americans, families in the Dust Bowl; 2. Photographers, painters, and writers Notetaking Study Guide Life in the Great Depression: Women: secretaries, salesclerks, factory, domestic; African Americans: unemployment, homelessness, illness, hunger; Other Americans: work, deported, poorest; The Dust Bowl: southwestern Plains, 1930, five years, 100 millions acres of rich farmland; California; Arts and Media: forget their problems, everyday life; Important People of the Depression: 1. Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady, championed women’s and minorities’ rights; 2. Mary McLeod Bethune, Educator and member of FDR’s “Black Cabinet,” Top-ranking African American in the government; 3. John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Promoted the “Indian New Deal”; 4. John Steinbeck, Author of The Grapes of Wrath, Wrote about Okies’ hardships in California; 5. Dorothea Lange, Photographer for Farm Security Administration, Took photos that became symbols of the Depression; 6. Thomas Hart Benton, WPA artist, WPA murals captured lives of ordinary people; 7. Shirley Temple, Popular child actress, Inspired people with her optimism
Chapter 23 Section 4 Checkpoint Old-Age Insurance, Aid to Dependent Children, financial help for the disabled, short-term payments for the unemployed A Reading Strategy Sample question: What was collective bargaining? Sample answer: the right of unions to speak for all workers in labor negotiations
Checkpoint minimum wage, maximum hours for the work week, overtime pay Vocabulary Builder the size of the federal government increased, the role of the federal government in solving social problems increased Checkpoint 1941; preparing for war brought the country out of the Depression Check Your Progress 1. Reforms such as Social Security and changes in labor relations affected nearly all Americans and changed the role of the government in people’s lives. 2. For: The New Deal gave people jobs and ended the banking crisis. Against: It gave too much power to the federal government and followed a policy of deficit spending. Notetaking Study Guide Social Security: payroll tax, employers; Children; Financial; Temporary; Labor Reforms: unions; collective; wage; overtime; child; OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
membership; Scorecard: Arguments Against New Deal: individual freedom; enterprise; deficit; economic recovery; Arguments in favor of New Deal: working; banking, stock; 12, electricity; faith
Chapter 23 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. A, 3. D A 1. B, 2. A, 3. C
Step 1: Downward Spiral: Unemployment rose from 3% to 25%; Thousands of rural and urban banks closed; Companies declared bankruptcy; Step 2: Hope: He reassured people in his inaugural address; he started his radio fireside chats to reassure the public; Action: He immediately declared a banking holiday to end the banking crisis; 15 new bills to respond to the Depression were passed and signed in his first hundred days in office; Step 3: Possible answer: The outcome of the Great Depression might have been different without FDR as President because the country was in such serious trouble by 1932. With the problems it had and the downward spiral it was in, it might have gotten worse and led to social unrest, dictatorship, or such poverty that the country would never recover. It needed the hope and most of the action of a President like FDR to turn things around.
Chapter 23 Notetaking Study Guide Great Depression: Effects on American People: Jobs: misery; minimum, unions, temporary; Communities: Hoovervilles; were ruined and abandoned; closed for lack of funds; schools, post offices, roads, bridges, airports; public-works projects; electricity to rural communities in Tennessee Valley; Savings and Investments: failed or closed, losing depositors’ money; protected savings accounts in banks; reformed stock reporting; Changing Role of Government: After the Great Depression: Much larger; Federal government takes the lead and provides money and programs to address problems; Larger role in setting regulations and passing laws to protect workers; More involvement and more financial support through programs like Social Security
Chapter 24 Section 1 Checkpoint Soviet Union: Josef Stalin; Germany: Adolf Hitler; Italy: Benito Mussolini Checkpoint Austria: Germany; Manchuria: Japan; Czechoslovakia: Germany; China: Japan; Ethiopia: Italy Checkpoint It did not allow the United States to provide loans, arms, or other assistance to a nation at war. Vocabulary Builder They tolerated German aggression because they wanted to avoid war. Checkpoint Winston Churchill Check Your Progress 1. It placed leaders with absolute power in the position of being able to use aggression to
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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invade other countries. 2. It did not stop the aggression of a leader like Hitler and allowed it to continue to build. Notetaking Study Guide How It Contributed to World War II 1. dictators who took control of their countries; 2. Benito Mussolini; militarism, blind loyalty to the state and its leader; 3. totalitarian, anti-Semitic laws; 4. Pacific; 5. Haile Selassie; 6. military, European democracies; 7. appeasement; Sudetenland; 8. selling arms, giving loans, or giving any other kind of assistance to any nation; 9. attack each other, divide up Poland when Germany attacked; 10. September 1, 1939; declared war on Germany; War Begins in Europe: stood alone against the Nazis; the Soviet Union
Chapter 24 Section 2 Checkpoint the first peacetime draft, the first African American combat unit under the command of black officers Vocabulary Builder b. steered Checkpoint Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Checkpoint Stalingrad, El Alamein A Reading Strategy Students should underline “In 1942, naval battles helped turn the tide.”
Checkpoint Douglas MacArthur Check Your Progress 1. It allowed Britain to “borrow” war goods from the United States, which showed American support of the Allies. 2. The American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese.
Chapter 24 Section 3 Checkpoint followed rationing, planted victory gardens, bought war bonds Checkpoint better working conditions, generally received equal pay to men for equal work Vocabulary Builder Students should circle these sentences: No evidence of Japanese American disloyalty was ever found. On the contrary, the 17,000 Japanese Americans who fought in Europe were among the most honored for bravery. Checkpoint There were fears that they would spy for the Japanese. 40
Checkpoint Fair Employment Practices Committee Check Your Progress 1. Factories began producing wartime goods; women answered the call to fill needed jobs in industry and in their communities. 2. Japanese Americans were imprisoned; African Americans faced job discrimination; Mexican Americans were beaten by sailors. Notetaking Study Guide The War at Home Building the Military: 15 million; nurses, noncombat; ferried bombers from base to base, towed targets, and taught men to fly; The Wartime Economy: consumer, military; War Production Board, production goals; doubled; Supporting the War Effort: rationing, sugar, shoes, and gasoline; ration coupons; war bonds; morale; Americans on the Home Front Women: wartime jobs, shipyards; personal confidence, better working conditions, generally better pay; Japanese Americans: interned in prison-type camps for the duration of the war; possessions, disloyalty or spying; African Americans: discrimination in employment and prejudice where they lived; investigate job discrimination; Mexican Americans: prejudice; U.S. sailors on shore leave; Zoot Suit Riots, discrimination
Chapter 24 Section 4 A Reading Strategy Sample question: What happened on D-Day? Sample answer: Under Allied commander Dwight Eisenhower, American, British, and Canadian troops landed at Normandy, in western France.
Checkpoint invasion of Italy and Mussolini losing power, D-Day landing in France, invasion of Germany in January 1945 Checkpoint It was the strategy for victory in the Pacific. The Allies targeted islands that would lead a path to Japan. Checkpoint to exterminate all Jews in Europe Check Your Progress 1. They used the invasions of Italy, France, and Germany to keep regaining land and power and pushing back the Germans. 2. They use the island hopping strategy to get close to Japan and dropped the atomic bombs. Notetaking Study Guide Victory in Europe Italy Surrenders: July 1943; September 8, 1943; D-Day: June 6, 1944; General Eisenhower; to invade France and retake western Europe; Omaha Beach; 2,500; August 25, 1944; Battle of the Bulge: December 16, 1944; supplies, soldiers; Germany Invaded: January 1945; west; Soviets; bombs; Victory: May 8, 1945; Aftermath: Nuremberg, Germany; Victory in the Pacific: Island Hopping: some islands and go around others to create a stepping stone to Japan;
Notetaking Study Guide Moving Toward War: 1940; Allies; Lend-Lease Act; peacetime draft; Winston Churchill, Atlantic Charter; December 7, 1941, Japanese military, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; the United States declared war; Germany, Italy; Japan; the Soviet Union, China, United States; Europe and North Africa: Moscow, Stalingrad; El Alamein; Morocco, Algeria, General Dwight D. Eisenhower; Japan Sweeps Through the Pacific: the Philippine Islands, U.S. bases; Douglas MacArthur; the Baatan peninsula of the Philippines, Filipino; Coral Sea, Midway; stopped the Japanese and caused such losses to the Japanese navy that it no longer ruled the Pacific
A Reading Strategy Students should underline “the irony of the United States fighting for democracy while allowing injustice at home”; Students should circle “President Roosevelt set up the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce racial equality in hiring.”
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Battles: Manila; Okinawa; The Atomic Bombs: Truman; estimated half a million American casualties; August 6, 1945, at least 130,000 people; Nagasaki, August 9, 1945; Victory: August 14, 1945; emperor of Japan; MacArthur, USS Missouri; Aftermath: Tokyo, Japanese war; President Franklin Roosevelt, because he died of a stroke on April 12, 1945
Chapter 24 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. D, 3. C A 1. B, 2. C, 3. A
Step 1: Their Leaders: Both Stalin in the Soviet Union and Hitler in Germany were dictators with total control of their countries. Terms of Nazi-Soviet Pact: They pledged not to attack each other and secretly agreed that the Soviet Union would take eastern Poland when Germany invaded. Step 2: Stopped the Germans outside Moscow; Defeated the Germans at Stalingrad and began pushing them back; Invaded Germany from the east as the other allies invaded from the west; Step 3: Students’ answers may be similar to the following: The outcome of the war in Europe might have been different if Germany had not attacked the Soviet Union because the Soviet Union was also a dictatorship and also showed aggression. If it had joined with Germany, the two powers might have defeated the Allies. Without the Soviet Union, beating Germany would have been much more difficult and the war might have gone on much longer.
Chapter 24 Notetaking Study Guide Causes Economic Factors: World depression, democratic; Totalitarian Governments: Germany, Japan; fascism, blind loyalty; Racist Theories: superior, inferior; anti-Semitism; Failed Organizations and Policies: League of Nations; appeasement, Munich Pact; Effects: In the United States: Great Depression; jobs with better working conditions and pay; Rationing; Japanese Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans; democracy; In the World: Europe, the Pacific; soldiers, civilians; six million, Holocaust; atomic bombs, Hiroshima, Nagasaki; war crimes
Chapter 25 Section 2 A Reading Strategy Students should underline “With peace came significant changes on the home front.” Students should circle “Millions of soldiers returned” and “U.S. industry switched from producing military goods to consumer goods.”
Checkpoint GI Bill of Rights Vocabulary Builder homes, appliances, cars, televisions Checkpoint tax revenues decreased, urban areas deteriorated, crime rose Check Your Progress 1. prices increased; workers demanded higher pay; labor unrest; 2. Many families moved to the suburbs and experienced an increase in their standard of living. Notetaking Study Guide Adjusting to Peacetime: soldiers, consumer goods; GI Bill of Rights, starting businesses, buying homes, and paying for college; supply, inflation; strikes; delay a strike; 1948, Democrats; minimum wage; A Changing Society: 1952, 1956; economy; Economic Changes in the 1950s: prosperous times; employment, productivity; increased; homes, cars; downturn, jobs, people, poorer; schools, services, crime; Social Changes in the 1950s: baby boom, vaccines; cars, highways, around; television, rock-and-roll; conform; material
Chapter 25 Section 3 Vocabulary Builder withdrawing Checkpoint Communist China A Reading Strategy Students should circle “tensions high,” “fear,” and “worried.”
Chapter 25 Section 1 Checkpoint “iron curtain” Vocabulary Builder Stalin set up a blockade of West Berlin to try to take control of the entire city. Checkpoint to help European nations rebuild from the war, to weaken Communist influence in those countries Checkpoint to maintain peace, to settle disputes Checkpoint the Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb, Communists took power in China Check Your Progress 1. to oppose the spread of communism through containment; 2. United Nations (UN) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Notetaking Study Guide Roots of the Cold War: Eastern Europe, satellites; iron curtain; U.S. Policies 1947 to 1949: oppose the spread of communism; containment; isolationism; United Nations; General Assembly; Security Council; military, North Atlantic Treaty Organization; guard against Soviet attack; U.S. Actions 1949 to 1949: Turkey; Marshall Plan, economic aid, France, $12 billion; set up a blockade; flying in food and other supplies to the people of West Berlin; West Germany; East Germany; Mao Zedong; Taiwan, legal
Checkpoint Senator Joseph McCarthy Check Your Progress 1. with a cease-fire and an agreement for both sides to honor a demilitarized zone at the border between North and South Korea; 2. that Communists would overthrow the U.S. government Notetaking Study Guide The Korean War Causes/ Expansion: North Korea, South Korea, 38th parallel; North Korea; South Korea; June 25, 1950, North Korea, South Korea; United Nations; 16, 90 percent, Douglas MacArthur; Decisive Actions: Seoul; supplies, defensive; 38th parallel; Chinese; Chinese, South Korea; Outcomes: stalemate; demilitarized zone; 2 million, civilians;
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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30,000, 100,000; fired, China; divided at the 38th parallel; Fears at Home: Soviet possession of atomic weapons, Fall of China to Communists, Stalemate in Korea; Alger Hiss, a former State Department official, was accused of spying for the Soviets in the 1930s; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested, tried, and executed for spying; Joseph McCarthy, government; McCarthyism
Chapter 25 Section 4 Checkpoint Sputnik A Reading Strategy Students should circle “containment”; Students should circle “The United States backed one side, and the Soviet Union supported the other” and/or “the United States supported France in its battle with Ho Chi Minh”
Checkpoint Congo, Philippines, Vietnam Vocabulary Builder The United States set up a naval blockade around Cuba, Soviet Union sent ships to Cuba that were headed toward the blockade Checkpoint Bay of Pigs Check Your Progress 1. It created stockpiled collections of nuclear weapons. More countries got involved by building their own nuclear weapons. 2. The Soviet Union agreed to remove nuclear missiles from Cuba, and the United States agreed not to invade Cuba.
Chapter 25 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. D, 3. C A 1. A, 2. C, 3. B
Step 1: Communism Spreads: Eastern Europe, Greece, Iran, Turkey, China, North Korea; Step 2: President Truman’s Statements and Actions: (Statements) President Truman stated his principles in the Truman Doctrine— that the United States would oppose the spread of communism and support free people; from that came the U.S. policy of containment to limit the spread of communism; (Actions) Truman supported the Marshall Plan and he led the United States through the Berlin airlift, when the United States provided food to West Berlin; he responded to the invasion of South Korea by getting the UN involved and making the United States the leading country that sent troops; he helped control the war in Korea by not allowing General MacArthur to bomb China; Step 3: Students’ topic sentence and 42
Chapter 25 Notetaking Study Guide Foreign Issues Affecting U.S. Spread of Communism: containment; Marshall Plan, Western; Korea, 30,000, 100,000; Arms race: hydrogen; Soviet Union, nuclear weapons; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Cuban missile crisis; International organizations: isolationism; United Nations; North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Developing nations: Communist; Peace Corps, American volunteers, economic; Domestic Issues Affecting U.S. Inflation: inflation causes prices to rise and leads to measures that weaken unions; Peacetime economy: the economy gets rolling and productivity increases, leading to a rise in the standard of living for many Americans; Growth of suburbs: Positive for communities around cities that grow; Negative for inner cities that lose tax money and go into a decline; Fear of communism: many people are falsely accused of being Communists and their lives are ruined
Unit 8 Pulling It Together Activity The Great Depression 25% unemployment: Jobs programs such as CCC and WPA provided work for millions of people; Bankrupt businesses and industries: Economic recovery efforts worked to strengthen industry and agriculture by bringing up prices and providing major work projects; reforms raised standards and improved working conditions; Stock market crash and bank failures: Reforms ensured greater honesty in stock reporting and protected bank deposits to ensure confidence in banks; World War II Home Front Meeting war production: Industry converted from producing consumer to war goods; women filled jobs in factories and shipyards; Supporting war effort: People sacrificed through rationing to support the troops; they grew victory gardens and bought war bonds and worked to keep morale high; Anti-Japanese feelings and fears: Japanese Americans were interned in prison-like camps, even though there was no evidence of spying; Postwar/Cold War Era Millions of returning soldiers: GI Bill of Rights provided money for veterans to start businesses, buy homes, and go to college, to help them adjust to peacetime; Fear of Communists in the United States: For awhile, Americans supported Senator Joseph McCarthy, who falsely accused people of being Communists; people were accused of spying, like the
Notetaking Study Guide The Arms Race: Nikita Khrushchev; hydrogen bombs, stockpiled; China, France, Britain; Sputnik; outer space; NASA, National Defense Education Act; Emerging Nations: Peace Corps, friendships, economic growth; World War II; Africa, Asia; Congo; airplanes, trucks, technical advisers; violent; Philippines, defeated; French, Vietnam; Ho Chi Minh, northern Vietnam; Latin America and the Cold War: anti-American; Fidel Castro, Communist, revolution; Bay of Pigs, Castro; missile bases; Kennedy, Khrushchev; Soviet ships; remove the missiles, invade Cuba
supporting sentences will vary but should be similar to: President Truman was a good leader for the United States at the start of the Cold War because he recognized the threat from the spread of communism and took action to contain it. He stated clearly the country’s position that it would oppose communism. He took strong actions when Communists threatened nonCommunist peoples and governments. He also took action as part of an international organization, the UN, and showed that he was a strong commander-in-chief.
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Rosenbergs who were tried and executed; Competing in the space race: NASA was created to launch a U.S. space program, and the National Defense Education Act produced more scientists and teachers; World War II German Aggression in Europe: At first the United States tried to remain neutral. When the war began in Europe and Britain stood alone, the United States helped supply the Allies with the Lend-Lease program. Once the United States was in the war, it provided millions of combat troops and strong political and military leadership. Through a series of invasions of North Africa, Italy, and then France, the United States helped to win the war; Japanese Aggression in the Pacific: The United States first cut off or reduced key exports to Japan in response to its aggression. When the U.S. naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was attacked on December 7, 1941, the United States declared war on Japan. Important naval battles turned the tide of the war and put the United States on the offensive. The United States followed a strategy of “island hopping,” invading key islands as stepping stones to Japan. Ultimately, it dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to avoid high U.S. casualties and end the war; The Cold War Soviet Threat: The United States set a policy of containment to limit the spread of communism in the world. It used economic and military means to support free peoples and help them oppose communism. It entered an arms race with the Soviet Union, to ensure it could not dominate in nuclear weapons; Korean War: The United States led a UN force of 16 countries to stop the invasion of South Korea by North Korea. The United States provided 90% of the troops and the commander of the force, General Douglas MacArthur. The war ended in a stalemate and cease-fire, with heavy U.S. casualties; Cuban Missile Crisis: When the United States gained evidence of missile bases and Soviet missiles in Cuba, President Kennedy used the threat of force with a blockade of Cuba, and then compromised when the Soviets backed down. The Soviets agreed to remove the missiles and the United States pledged not to invade Cuba.
Notetaking Study Guide Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement: Plessy v. Ferguson, segregation; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); The 1940s: World War II; Jackie Robinson, Major League Baseball; armed forces; The 1950s Segregation in the Schools: Thurgood Marshall, desegregation, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka; end; Little Rock, Arkansas; Orval Faubus; Eisenhower; Montgomery Bus Boycott: Rosa Parks, to give up her seat; boycott; Martin Luther King, Jr.; outraged, bombed; segregation on buses was unconstitutional
Chapter 26 Section 2 Checkpoint Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Miranda v. Arizona, Tinker v. Des Moines School District OL Vocabulary Builder eliminate A Reading Strategy “Domestic” means relating to matters within a country; Students should circle “equal treatment under the law,” “eradicate poverty,” and “improve health conditions.”
Checkpoint some antipoverty legislation and the space program Checkpoint Possible answers include two of the following: Medicaid, welfare, Medicare, Head Start, H.U.D., food stamps, Economic Opportunity Act Check Your Progress 1. “Judicial activism” means to not depend on the precise wording of the Constitution to make decisions, and to break with (or overturn) past decisions if they were unfair. Example: In Miranda v. Arizona, the Court expanded the rights of people accused of crimes. 2. Possible answers: to eliminate poverty, to improve education, to assist people in obtaining decent housing, to help the poor and elderly pay medical bills, to improve public services
Vocabulary Builder angry, aggressive
Notetaking Study Guide The Warren Court: flexibly; people accused of crimes; freedom of speech; Kennedy’s Administration: end poverty, fight disease, ensure justice for all, start space program; some antipoverty programs, space program; Johnson’s Administration: Great Society: expand opportunity and provide decent standard of living for all Americans; Head Start: provide preschools for needy children; Medicare; Medicaid: to assist the needy not covered by Medicare in paying medical bills; Food Stamps: to assist the needy in paying for groceries; Welfare; H.U.D.: to oversee building of housing for low and middle-income people
Checkpoint He wanted his daughter to go to a school close to home.
Chapter 26 Section 3
Chapter 26 Section 1 Checkpoint segregation and discrimination Checkpoint professional baseball and the armed services
Checkpoint Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. Check Your Progress 1. in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court ended school segregation; the Supreme Court also ended segregation on buses; 2. Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her bus seat to a white passenger; the boycott was effective because 75 percent of bus riders were African Americans. OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Checkpoint Jesus, Mohandas Gandhi, A. Philip Randolph Checkpoint sit-ins, Freedom Rides, marches Checkpoint Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 A Reading Strategy Students should circle “began,” “at first,” and “later.”
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Checkpoint Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael Checkpoint a policy by which businesses and schools gave preference to groups discriminated against in the past Check Your Progress 1. integrated public facilities, outlawed job discrimination, sped up school desegregation, and helped to protect rights of voters; 2. ended legal segregation in the South, increased number of African American officials in government, ensured voting rights of African Americans, integrated schools Notetaking Study Guide 1957: Martin Luther King, Jr.; Southern Christian Leadership Conference; 1960: sit-in; 1961: Freedom Rides; 1962: James Meredith; 1963: Birmingham, Alabama; March on Washington; 1964: Johnson; Civil Rights Act of 1964; outlaws segregation, advances voting opportunities, bans job discrimination, and speeds up school desegregation; 1965: Selma, Montgomery, Alabama; tear gas, clubs, and whips; Voting Rights Act of 1965, removes barriers to voting and allows federal officials to register African Americans; Malcolm X; Watts, police brutality; 1967: Thurgood Marshall; 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr.; Riots; 1970s: Affirmative action, preferential treatment; some groups have unfair advantages for jobs and education
Chapter 26 Section 4 Checkpoint fairer treatment under the law, better professional opportunities, day-care for working mothers, passage of the Equal Rights Amendment Vocabulary Builder Possible answer: They had poor facilities and few supplies.
Checkpoint to make growers deal with the union Checkpoint AIM believed in more militant tactics. Check Your Progress 1. Passage of the Equal Pay Act in 1963, the Civil Rights Act of 1965, increasing numbers of women in workplace and colleges, increasing political representation; 2. Women, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, older Americans, Americans with disabilities Notetaking Study Guide The Women’s Rights Movement: The Feminine Mystique, women’s limited role in society; laws that would give women greater equality, that medical schools and law practices train and hire more women, day-care facilities for mothers who worked outside the home, passage of the ERA; to forbid any form of sex discrimination; would undermine traditional values, could force women into combat, could lessen women’s right to alimony, laws already gave women equality; that men and women doing the same work receive the same pay; The Civil Rights Act; 44
Chapter 26 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. A, 3. D A 1. C, 2. B, 3. C
Step 1: Goals of Civil Rights Movement: To end segregation, To enable African Americans to vote without barriers, To end discrimination in hiring, To bring attention to injustice; Step 2: Brown v. Board of Education⎯banned segregation in schools; Case regarding public buses—banned segregation on buses; Civil Rights Act of 1964—banned segregation in public places, banned discrimination in hiring; Voting Rights Act of 1965—removed barriers to voting, allowed federal officers to register voters in the South; Step 3: Students’ sentences will vary but should be similar to the following: The American government helped the civil rights movement to achieve its goals in that the Supreme Court banned segregation. President Johnson championed civil rights legislation, and Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1975.
Chapter 26 Notetaking Study Guide Education: segregation in schools must end; preschool for needy children; in two languages; that all children, regardless of disabilities, get a free education; Transportation: Rosa Parks, give up her bus seat to a white passenger; unconstitutional; ensure that laws against segregation on public transportation across state lines were being followed; Workplace: discrimination in hiring; women and men doing the same job should get the same pay; better treatment for migrant workers; discriminate, physical or mental disabilities; Public facilities: refused to leave areas that had been designated as “whites only”; segregation of public facilities; better access; Voting: to remove barriers to voting; to allow federal officers to register voters in segregated states; to provide bilingual elections where there was a great number of foreign-language speakers; Public Health: provides health insurance to older men and women; provides health insurance to the needy who are not covered by Medicare; health insurance for older Americans
A Reading Strategy Possible question: What did César Chávez do to help Mexican Americans? Possible answer: He organized the UFW union to help them get better pay and working conditions.
increased; Mexican Americans: Mexican schools; American GI Forum; it was illegal to exclude Mexican Americans from juries; César Chávez, grapes; grape growers signing a contract with the UFW; it ensured bilingual elections; bilingual; Native Americans: The National Congress of American Indians, water, mineral; American Indian Movement; Wounded Knee; to draw attention to past injustice against Native Americans; Older Americans: forcing people to retire once they reach a certain age; American Association of Retired Persons (AARP); Gray Panthers; Americans With Disabilities: would improve access to public buildings; all children with disabilities would receive a free education; discriminate in hiring based on physical or mental disability
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conscientious objectors; Canada; Antiwar movement evolves: peaceful; police
Chapter 27 Section 1 Vocabulary Builder a. collected Checkpoint The United States supported France against Ho Chi Minh, who was a Communist. A Reading Strategy Students should underline “Diem,
however, prevented these elections from taking place.” Students should circle “the South Vietnamese organized to oppose him. Guerrillas, or fighters who carry out hitand-run attacks, began strikes against Diem’s government.” Checkpoint If one country becomes Communist, other nearby countries were also likely to become Communist. Check Your Progress 1. Ho Chi Minh fought the French so that Vietnam could be independent. 2. Vietnam was divided into two countries. Ho Chi Minh’s Communist government ruled North Vietnam. Ngo Dinh Diem’s non-Communist government ruled South Vietnam. Notetaking Study Guide Vietnam’s History: Southeast Asia; French, Indochina; Japan; Ho Chi Minh; Vietminh; France, the spread of communism; 8 years; Dien Bien Phu; A Battleground Against Communism: if one country fell to Communists, its neighbors would follow; was divided into two countries; Ho Chi Minh’s Communist government, Hanoi; Ngo Dinh Diem, Saigon; fighters who launch hit-and-run attacks; Vietcong; corrupt and harsh; pulling support from Diem; military leaders; John F. Kennedy; Lyndon Johnson
Vocabulary Builder b. greatness of size or extent Checkpoint U.S. and South Vietnamese troops eventually retook cities. Many stopped believing that the United States and South Vietnam could beat North Vietnam, so support for war decreased. Checkpoint hawks, doves Check Your Progress 1. He wanted to prevent the spread of communism and respond to North Vietnamese aggression. 2. Some burned draft cards, some claimed to be conscientious objectors, and some fled to Canada. Notetaking Study Guide North Vietnam attacks: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, air strikes against North Vietnam; Johnson runs for reelection: wins, landslide; North Vietnam attacks Pleiku: air strikes; Vietcong continue attacks: napalm, Agent Orange; search and destroy missions; The North Vietnamese launch: Tet offensive; retake cities and win; surprise and decreasing support for the war; The war continues: supported the war and wanted the government to mount an all-out military effort to decisively defeat the Vietcong and North Vietnam; believed the Vietnam War could not be won and was morally wrong; Opposition to the war increases: burn; OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
Chapter 27 Section 3 Checkpoint to bring “peace with honor” Vocabulary Builder He believed that bombing the Cambodian bases would cut off supplies and weaken the North Vietnamese and Vietcong. Checkpoint Vietnamization Checkpoint It was the South Vietnamese retreat from North Vietnamese troops, in which thousands of soldiers and civilians died. A Reading Strategy Students should circle “War Powers Act.” Students should underline “This said that presidents needed the approval of Congress before sending U.S. troops into combat for longer than 60 days.”
Checkpoint more than 58,000 soldiers died in battle; 300,000 soldiers were wounded Check Your Progress 1. The bombing was very unpopular in the United States, helping the antiwar movement. Several protests at universities ended in tragedy, with protesters shot and killed. 2. North Vietnamese troops took over South Vietnam. Vietnam was unified under a Communist government. About a million South Vietnamese tried to flee, and many thousands died. Notetaking Study Guide Johnson does not run for reelection: Hubert Humphrey; Nixon promises to bring: “peace with honor”; Nixon; Nixon pursues policy of: Vietnamization; Nixon calls for bombing Cambodian bases: small; chaos and civil war; a new storm of protests; Henry Kissinger meets: peace is at hand; rejected the proposed agreement; Signed in 1973: Paris Peace Accords; March 1973; North Vietnamese allowed 150,000 troops: seize control of the country; South Vietnamese troops retreat: Convey of Tears; South Vietnamese government surrenders: Communist; Ho Chi Minh City; Number of killed and wounded: more than 58,000; 350,000; 500,000 and 1 million; 10 million; South Vietnamese flee: boat people; 200,000
Chapter 27 Section 4 Vocabulary Builder to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war Checkpoint sent a mission to the moon; opened relations with China; signed SALT agreement with Soviet Union A Reading Strategy Students should underline “1972,” “Within months,” “May 1973,” “July 1974,” and “Within a month.”
Checkpoint the burglary of Democratic Party offices at the Watergate apartment complex Checkpoint Whip Inflation Now (WIN)
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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Check Your Progress 1. The presidential tapes revealed that Nixon was involved in the break-in of the Democratic Party headquarters. He knew that there were enough votes to remove him from office after an impeachment. 2. Many South Vietnamese tried to flee the Communist government, and Ford tried to help them escape. When Cambodian Communists seized an American ship, Ford intervened.
Chapter 28 Section 1
Notetaking Study Guide President Richard Nixon Important Events: walk on the moon; Domestic Policy: high inflation, recession, high unemployment; froze, did not; Foreign Policy: mainland China; Mao Zedong; Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty; the number and type of nuclear warheads and missiles that each nation could build; Watergate: Democratic Party, Watergate; White House officials; A Senate committee; John Dean, tapes of his conversations; impeach; resigned; President Gerald Ford: pardoned Nixon; Whip Inflation Now; tax cut; arranged for the airlift of thousands of South Vietnamese out of the country; Jimmy Carter
Checkpoint increased taxes for the wealthy and reduced federal spending
Chapter 27 Assessment OL 1. C, 2. B, 3. A A 1. B, 2. A, 3. A
Chapter 27 Notetaking Study Guide Causes: Indochina; Ho Chi Minh; Vietminh; French; the domino theory; President John F. Kennedy was assassinated; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; napalm, Agent Orange; Effects: Hawks, Doves; violence; President Johnson; Richard Nixon, Vietnamization; Paris Peace; attacked South Vietnam; Communist; more than 58,000; 350,000; 500,000, 1 million; Boat people; Watergate 46
Checkpoint inflation and the hostage crisis Checkpoint cut taxes, balance federal budget, deregulate business Checkpoint cut spending on social programs and cut number of federal jobs
Check Your Progress 1. Reagan’s economic program limited government’s growth and reduced inflation. 2. Clinton’s economic programs cut the deficit and resulted in a government surplus. The nation was prosperous. Notetaking Study Guide President Jimmy Carter: inflation; the hostage crisis with Iran; The Conservative Movement and President Ronald Reagan: in cutting federal government, deregulating business, and lowering taxes; in traditional family values, patriotism, and religion; He believed cuts would promote spending by taxpayers, which would help the economy by helping manufacturing and sales; being successful at communicating his optimism, helping to cut inflation and slow the growth of the federal government; that his cuts hurt the poor and the environment while helping the wealthy; President George H.W. Bush: he believed it was the only way to combat the rising national debt; a temporary economic slump; President Bill Clinton: he would provide an alternative to conservatism and liberalism. He would cut the size of government and reduce welfare. Still, he would pay attention to those in need; increased taxes for the wealthy and reduced federal spending; ending federal welfare spending but providing grants to state and local antipoverty programs, limiting the time that benefits could be paid to encourage people to work; when the government receives more than it spends; he appeared to lie under oath about an improper relationship with a young intern; President George W. Bush: Democrats believed that the election in Florida was unfair and wanted a recount. The Supreme Court stopped the recount and Bush won; tax cuts and “No Child Left Behind”
Chapter 28 Section 2 Vocabulary Builder hurt, blemished, injured, harmed Checkpoint increased military spending, supported fighters in Afghanistan, supported anti-Communists in Central America Checkpoint allowed glasnost, agreed to nuclear missile reduction treaty with the United States A Reading Strategy Students should circle “worked to strengthen the economy and achieve democratic
Step 1: U.S. Goals at Beginning of Vietnam War: Stop the spread of Communism; Support South Vietnam’s antiCommunist government; U.S. Goals During the War Under Nixon: Have South Vietnamese take on more responsibility for fighting; Work out a peace agreement; Step 2: U.S. Difficulties in Vietnam: uncertainty about who is the enemy and who is an ally; enemy knows region better than U.S. soldiers; U.S. Reaction to War: Country is divided between hawks and doves; support diminishes as war goes on, especially after bombing of Cambodia; antiwar movement grows; Step 3: Students’ topic sentences and supporting sentences will vary but may be similar to the following: The U.S. goals in Vietnam changed as time went on, from stopping the spread of communism and championing South Vietnam’s government, to having South Vietnamese troops take on more of the fighting and to negotiate a peace settlement. These goals changed as a result of the difficulties of the war, including the fact that the soldiers could not always tell who was an enemy and who was an ally. The goals also changed because it became clear that public support for the war was diminishing, and the antiwar movement was growing.
Vocabulary Builder to meet or to face
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reforms.” Students should underline “crime and corruption.” Checkpoint relief and happiness Check Your Progress 1. The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. 2. The Soviet Union tried to match the American military buildup with its own, which caused its economy to decline. Notetaking Study Guide Effects: Cold War tensions: ease; Carter responds by: stopping arms control agreement, boycotting Moscow Olympics, imposing trade restrictions; Reagan fights communism by: building up military, supporting rebels in Afghanistan, supporting anti-Communists in Central America; Reagan responds by supporting: Contras; Reagan officials: Iran, Contras in Nicaragua; Soviet Union responds: building up its own military; Soviet economy: declines; Soviets want: more freedom; He meets with Reagan: arms control; Communism loses power: Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; Berlin Wall; Soviet Union: dissolves; Americans feel: relief
Chapter 28 Section 3 Vocabulary Builder It becomes worthless. Checkpoint applying economic sanctions A Reading Strategy Students should underline “Especially troubling was the fact that India and Pakistan, feuding neighbors, both built nuclear bombs.” Students should drawn an arrow to the phrase “increasing the danger of nuclear war.”
Checkpoint The START treaties reduced the number of existing nuclear weapons, while the SALT treaty reduced the number of weapons to be built. Check Your Progress 1. Accept any of the following: South Africa: the United States applied sanctions along with other countries⎯apartheid ended; Northern Ireland: the United States helped negotiate powersharing agreement⎯violence was reduced; China: the United States tried to persuade China to improve human rights; Cuba: the United States banned trade in order to weaken Castro, who remains in power; 2. because of the threat of nuclear war Notetaking Study Guide The United States Uses Its Influence South Africa: sanctions, apartheid; Philippines: aid, Ferdinand Marcos; Northern Ireland: Catholic minority and Protestant majority; China: persuade, Tiananmen Square; Cuba: Fidel Castro; Arms Control SALT: United States, Soviet Union; 1972; reduce the numbers of nuclear warheads and long-range nuclear missiles to be built; SALT II: United States, Soviet Union; 1977; no agreement, Carter withdrew treaty in protest; START: United States, Soviet Union; President George H.W. Bush, Gorbachev; 1991; cut 30 percent of nuclear weapons; START II: United States, Russia; 1993; 1997; cut long-range nuclear weapons by two thirds; The Nuclear Threat Continues: abide by existing treaties; OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
store, destroy; India, Pakistan; it would mean an increasing threat of nuclear war
Chapter 28 Section 4 Checkpoint OPEC determines how much oil will be produced and sets its price. A Reading Strategy Students should underline “they wanted to establish a homeland” and “Nazism and the Holocaust led thousands more Jews to settle in Palestine.” Students should circle “war began” and “hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs lost their homes.”
Vocabulary Builder Extremists on the Arab side did not want to recognize Israel and wanted more selfdetermination. Extremists on the Israeli side did not want to give up any part of Israel to Palestinian self-rule. Checkpoint Palestinians already lived there and wanted a Palestinian state run by Palestinians. Checkpoint Islamists are against westernization and resent the U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia. Islamists have taken violent action against Westerners. Check Your Progress 1. It is strategically located, it is the home of three major world religions, and it holds most of the world’s oil. 2. George H.W. Bush worked with 28 countries to persuade Iraq to leave Kuwait. When Saddam Hussein did not withdraw, the countries attacked Iraq, launching the Persian Gulf War. Notetaking Study Guide The Middle East: Southwest Asia, Egypt, Afghanistan; Christianity, Judaism, Islam; oil resources; Arab-Israeli Conflict: Jewish state; the state of Israel; homeless; gaining more land from other nations; Egypt; a Palestinian state; Intifada; renounce violence, have limited self-rule; suicide bombings; using military force; cease-fire; Islamist Extremism: Shah of Iran; Western books, movies, and music; Islamists; They think that Western culture threatens their religious beliefs; they resent U.S. economic power and U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia; The Persian Gulf War: Kuwait; General Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell; withdrew troops from Kuwait; sanctions
Chapter 28 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. A, 3. D A 1. C, 2. A, 3. B
Step 1: Cold War Goals: limit the spread of communism, limit the threat of nuclear war, spread democracy; Step 2: President George H.W. Bush’s Foreign Policy Goals: promote democracy, limit threats to oil in Middle East, prevent spread of nuclear weapons; President Clinton’s Foreign Policy Goals: promote democracy, prevent spread of nuclear weapons, promote peace between Israelis and Palestinians; Step 3: Students’ topic sentence and supporting sentences will vary but may be similar to the following: After the Cold War ended, U.S. foreign policy goals changed from its focus on limiting the spread of communism to focusing on promoting democracy,
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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addressing the dangers of the spread of nuclear weapons, and dealing with individual trouble spots. President George H.W. Bush dealt with Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait with the use of force. President Clinton tried to negotiate peace between Palestinians and Israelis.
Chapter 29 Section 2
Chapter 28 Notetaking Study Guide
A Reading Strategy Students should underline “available only in areas with rivers.” Students should circle “takes up too much space to be used on a large scale.” Students should draw an arrow to “not a steady source.”
National Events Change the Nation: inflation; cut taxes, cut social programs and government jobs; recession; raised taxes on the wealthy, reduced some spending, ended federal welfare payments; International Events Affect the Nation: supporting rebels in Afghanistan, increasing military spending, fighting leftists in Central America; it built its military in response to U.S. military buildup; glasnost, signing of arms control treaty with the United States, lack of support for Communist regimes in Eastern Europe; the Soviet Union dissolved; Other Major World Events: sanctions, apartheid; trying to persuade China’s government to allow more human rights; nuclear weapons; India, Pakistan; Tensions in the Middle East: the state of Israel; Arafat; Palestinian, Palestinians; limited self-rule; renounce violence; Muslims who believe in an extreme form of Islam; Iraq, Kuwait
Chapter 29 Section 1 Checkpoint Earlier terrorist attacks against Americans had been abroad. Checkpoint He promoted counterterrorism efforts and signed the Patriot Act. Vocabulary Builder Because he is wealthy, he might have paid for the attacks or funded the terrorists. Checkpoint Afghanistan and Iraq Check Your Progress 1. Terrorism is the use of violence against civilians to force political or social change; counterterrorism is action taken against terrorists. 2. He was a wealthy Saudi Arabian who ran the al Qaeda terrorist network and was suspected of playing a part in the 9/11 attacks. Notetaking Study Guide Terrorism on the World Stage 1988: explosion on airplane kills 270 people (189 Americans); 1993: New York; truck bomb explodes in World Trade Center, killing 6; 1995: Oklahoma City; truck bomb explodes in federal building, killing 168; The Nation Is Attacked 2001: hijacked, terrorists; crash into the World Trade Center towers; the Pentagon; efforts against terrorism; gives authorities sweeping powers when arresting suspected terrorists; The War on Terror Afghanistan: leader of al Qaeda terrorist network; extremist rulers in Afghanistan who will not release Bin Laden; Iraq: Iraqi dictator; weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear and chemical weapons; Election of 2004 Bush’s position: Kerry lacks determination to fight terrorism; Kerry’s position: Bush mishandling war in Iraq; Outcome: Bush wins election 48
Checkpoint outsourcing, tariffs, free trade Checkpoint dangerous chemicals (such as DDT), auto emissions, pollution in lakes and rivers
Checkpoint water, solar, and wind power Checkpoint gases, such as carbon dioxide, emitted by cars, factories, and homes Check Your Progress 1. Some companies began to have work done in other countries in order to take advantage of lower labor costs in foreign countries. 2. Possible answers: Legislation ordered car makers to improve fuel efficiency; the government created an oil reserve; people began looking for alternative energy sources. Notetaking Study Guide A World Linked by Trade globalization: creating an international network; foreign trade is 25 percent of the U.S. economy; trade deficit: occurs when a country buys more from other nations that it sells to them; the United States competes with other countries for sales; outsourcing: having work done in other countries; it allows U.S. manufacturers to charge lower prices but may hurt U.S. workers; free trade: removal of trade barriers; allows free trade among countries, but may weaken workers’ rights and harm the environment; The Environment Early Awareness: 1962, Silent Spring, the use of DDT; oil, California, smog; Environmental Actions: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); auto emissions, lakes, rivers; started recycling programs; Critics of the Movement: environment regulations are costly; The Energy Supply Cause: cut off Middle Eastern oil supplies to the United States; Effects: quadrupled; fuel efficiency; lowering thermostats, insulating, and buying smaller cars; coal, water power, solar power, wind power, nuclear power; The Question of Global Warming: a worldwide rise in temperature; the changes threaten many plants and animals; Earth has gone through other cold and warm periods
Chapter 29 Section 3 Vocabulary Builder calculating an answer; using a computer Checkpoint computers, e-commerce, the Internet, e-mail, cellular phones A Reading Strategy The problem is the AIDS epidemic and the expense of the drugs that help AIDS sufferers. The solution is a $15 billion program to distribute the medicines worldwide.
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Check Your Progress 1. It refers to the rapid changes in the ways that information is stored, analyzed, and shared due to computers and the Internet. 2. It has killed millions of people; in some African countries 20 percent of the population is infected with the virus that causes AIDS. Notetaking Study Guide The Computer Age Computer Technology: 1970s, large, expensive; transistor; Apple, 1977; The Internet: Defense, some American universities; Tim Berners-Lee; more than half; buying and selling online; Privacy Issues: tap into information on computers; stealing and using personal information; public places and while driving; Medical Advances New Tools: powerful beams of focused light; perform delicate surgery; magnetic resonance imaging; get an accurate view of internal organs; AIDS: the 1980s; millions of people; they cannot afford the expensive medicines; Cloning: making a genetic double of a plant or an animal; a sheep cloned in 1997; prohibited federal funding for human cloning, of concerns about biological and ethical dangers
Chapter 29 Assessment OL 1. B, 2. D, 3. B, 4. A A 1. C, 2. C, 3. A
Vocabulary Builder motivation, encouragement
Step 1: Sample answers: Terrorism is a greater threat; Companies have turned to outsourcing; Latinos are the largest minority; Step 2: Sample answers: More and more companies will turn to outsourcing, creating fewer jobs in the United States; The Latino population will continue to grow; Step 3: Students’ sentences vary. Sample answers: If current patterns continue, in 25 years the United States will have a larger Latino population. More Latinos will hold public office, and more cities will have a Latino majority. Employment opportunities in the United States might decrease if the trend toward outsourcing continues.
Checkpoint Vietnam, China, Cuba, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua
Chapter 29 Notetaking Study Guide
Chapter 29 Section 4
A Reading Strategy Students should underline “In 2003, the House of Representatives included 23 Latino members. The number of Latino-owned businesses increased dramatically.” Students should circle “almost 40 percent of Latino children were living in poverty.”
African Americans: education, employment, public office; unemployment, poverty; Women: employment, management positions, public office; equal pay, single parent households; Native Americans: greater power, religious protection, strengthened tribal economies; unemployment, poverty, juvenile delinquency; Challenges for the Young Violence: metal detectors, police, student and teacher training; Illegal Drugs: drug testing, penalties, therapy
Checkpoint Latinos are the largest minority; the population is older; population centers have shifted to the Sunbelt Checkpoint more African Americans earn college degrees; fewer live in poverty; over 10,000 hold public office Checkpoint violence and drug use Check Your Progress 1. Undocumented workers are laborers who enter the country without legal permission; guest workers are legal temporary immigrant workers. 2. the birthrate has decreased, improved medical treatment Notetaking Study Guide Changing Immigration Patterns Sources of Immigration: Asians; Latin America; Refugees; economic opportunities; Immigration Policies: ended limits on non-European immigrants; employers who hired undocumented workers; allowing more guest workers; A Changing Population Latinos: the largest minority; with a Latino majority; poverty, unemployment; Asian Americans: 11 million; employment; Older Population: birthrates went down and medical care improved; Social Security, health care; Population Center: the Northeast and Midwest, the South and Southwest; the Sunbelt; Expanding Opportunities OL Answer(s) specific to On-Level Version.
The Threat of Terrorism: terrorists attacked the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing thousands of people; took steps to protect the homeland and fight terrorism around the world, including going to war against Iraq; Economy and the Environment Trade Deficits: a nation buys more from other countries than it sells to them; having work done in foreign countries; Free Trade: limiting restrictions on trade, such as tariffs; Environmental Movement: air and water pollution and the misuse of limited resources; Science and Technology Computer Technology: transistors made computers smaller and affordable; to find information and communicate; Medical Science: lasers, MRIs, AIDS; A Changing Society Immigration: Asia, Latin America; Ethnic Changes: Latinos; Aging Population: an increase in the average age; Population Shift: Northeast and Midwest states, South and Southwest states in the Sunbelt
Unit 9 Pulling It Together Activity Legislative Action: Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Great Society Program, Voting Rights Act of 1975; Court Decisions: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Hernández v. Texas; Reform Movements: African American civil rights movements, women’s rights movement, Mexican American rights movement, Native American rights movement, older Americans’ rights movement, Americans with disabilities movement; Sanctions: economic boycott of South Africa to protest apartheid; economic boycott of Cuba to
A Answer(s) specific to Adapted Version.
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protest Castro’s regime; economic boycott of Iraq to protest Hussein’s regime; Military Action: Vietnam—the United States tried to stop the spread of communism; U.S. military buildup during 1980s helps spark change in Soviet Union; Persian Gulf War promotes democracy in Kuwait; “War on Terror” promotes democracy in Afghanistan and Iraq; Diplomatic Action—Arms control
treaties: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT); SALT II, not ratified because of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; START; START II; Peace Talks: Geneva Accords; Paris Peace Talks; Camp David Accords; peace talks with leaders on opposing sides in Northern Ireland; Clinton led negotiations between Arafat and Israeli leaders
Focused Practice for. Spelling Mastery. â¢ Vowel sounds. â¢ Easily misspelled words. â¢ Prefixes and suffixes. â¢ Compound words. â¢ Dictionary. â¢ Answer key. GRADE ..... NAME. Spectrum Spelling. Lesson 4. Grade 4. Words with ch and sh. 19. Le
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