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Nick Marechal The Aerospace Corp. February 6, 2012 © The Aerospace Corporation 2009

Material from May 2009 IEEE Presentation Approved by Office of Technical Relations OTR20090227100430

Aerospace Staff Signal Processing Contributions • Richard Dickinson • Grant Karamyan

Mover phase as a function of slow time One of eight image channels

Mover revealed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Ground Moving Targets in SAR Imagery Outline • Nominal Moving Target Phase Equations • Measured Moving Target Phase Examples • Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Review • STAP applied to 8 channel SAR image data (element space, phase centers) – Single 3 sec coherent integration full azimuth resolution – Ten 0.3 second coherent integration times, results in SAR movie of moving vehicle

Airborne X-band Image Example Azimuth Impulse Response (IPR) and Residual Phase Error Shown

• Image of corner reflector (single look) Corner Reflector Azimuth-Doppler IPR

Corner Reflector Azimuth Phase (unwrap phase of FFT of IPR)

Corner Reflector Azimuth-Amplitude (amp of FFT of IPR)

aircraft data

Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI)

Moving Point Target Phase Characteristics Go To Paper on Moving Target Phase

Quadratic Phase & Nonzero Doppler Rate • Quadratic phase defocuses Doppler/azimuth IPR • Formula for quadratic expressed for polar format processed data • Target energy can be focused by phase compensation • Stationary Targets do not exhibit 1000’s deg of phase Note: CDP = 2.71 sec. Phase Target 5

v ⋅ u y T a ⋅ u xT 2 (degrees) Q = 90 + y λ ∆ v = target velocity vector a = target acceleration vector u x = slant plane range unit vector u y = slant plane azimuth unit vector T = coherent dwell period ∆y = nominal azimuth resolution λ = wavelength at mid band

Phase Target 6

degrees

Phase Target 1

Quadratic Phase (polar format processing)

azimuth samples

azimuth samples

azimuth samples

Q = - 4563 deg GPS prediction

No GPS data for prediction

Q = 1627 deg GPS prediction*

Q ~ - 4000 deg observed above

Q ~ 8000 deg observed above

Q ~ 1500 deg observed above *GPS derived acceleration set = 0

aircraft data

degrees

degrees

Moving Target Phase: Aircraft Data Observations

Quadratic Phase: target range acceleration & cross range velocity, … Cubic Phase: target cross range acceleration & non-constant range acceleration Stationary targets do not have these phase signatures aircraft data

GMTI •

Show examples of common processing of multiple channel radar data into image and moving target products – Long coherent dwell (e.g., 2 to 3 seconds) – Subdivision of dwell into short coherent processing intervals (e.g., 10 CPIs each 0.2 seconds duration)

•

Data observations and discussions – MTI with and without clutter suppression – Target range acceleration and cross range velocity provides phase characteristics not shared stationary targets • •

Energy migration through freq bins, intrinsically more degrees of freedom to match signal, signal processing implications Also hedge against false alarms

Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Formulated for SAR Imagery Assume a system with N displaced along track antenna elements or N azimuth beams ( N channels) σ = σ (x, y) = [ σ (x, y), σ (x, y), ... , σ (x, y) ]T 1

2

R = Rc + Rn

N

(stack or vector of images, one from each channel)

(N by N clutter plus receiver noise covariance matrix)

w = [ w 1 , w 2 ,... , w N ] (channel summation weights) s = [ s1 , s 2 , ... , s N ]

(target steering vector, complex exponential of linear phase or azimuth beam weights)

s n = exp( i (2 π / λ )(n - 1) (d / r) ( u d ⋅ x) ) (nominal antenna element space representation, angle of arrival related) d = dist between antenna elements, r = range, u d = unit vector defines direction along which the elements are located in 3D SINR(w ) =

w Hs

2

w H Rw optimal w = R −1 s

(signal - to - interference ratio, include consideration to clutter power) (STAP weight vector for maximum SINR, estimate R from data, exclude movers)

max SINR(w ) = SINR(R −1 s ) = (R −1 s) H s

(max SINR, application of Cauchy - Schwarz inequality)

STAP filter output = w H σ = (R −1s) H σ = s H R −1σ

(for a given target steering vector hypothesis)

application of inverse covariance matrix to image stack apparently suppresses clutter clutter suppressed image stack = (R −1σ )(x, y),

(for analysis, now apply hypothesis space of steering vectors)

Note: Missing wavelength factor in steering vector definition corrected above on February 10, 2012.

Element Space: 1 and 2 of 8 Clutter Images 1 and 2 of 8 channels/images shown single look complex

image 1

aircraft data

image 2

R-1 Applied - Clutter Suppression Apparent 1 and 2 of 8 channels/images shown steering vector not applied

image 1

aircraft data

image 2

R-1 Applied - Clutter Suppression Apparent 1 and 2 of 8 channels/images shown steering vector not (yet) applied

moving target energy observed

image 1

aircraft data

image 2

Digital Beam Steer to Upper Part of Image Application of beam steering vector shown Complex-valued beam steering vector components are complex sinusoids a phase which is linear with antenna element index Analogous to discrete Fourier transform s = [ s1 , s 2 , ... , s N ]

azimuth

s n = exp( i (2 π / λ) (n - 1) (d / r) ( u d ⋅ x) )

Note: Missing wavelength factor in steering vector definition corrected above on February 10, 2012.

aircraft data

range

Digital Beam Steer to Center Part of Image Application of beam steering vector shown Complex-valued beam steering vector components are complex sinusoids a phase which is linear with antenna element index Analogous to discrete Fourier transform s = [ s1 , s 2 , ... , s N ]

azimuth

s n = exp( i (2 π / λ) (n - 1) (d / r) ( u d ⋅ x) )

Note: Missing wavelength factor in steering vector definition corrected above on February 10, 2012.

aircraft data

range

Digital Beam Steer to Lower Part of Image Application of beam steering vector shown Complex-valued beam steering vector components are complex sinusoids a phase which is linear with antenna element index Analogous to discrete Fourier transform s = [ s1 , s 2 , ... , s N ]

azimuth

s n = exp( i (2 π / λ) (n - 1) (d / r) ( u d ⋅ x) )

Note: Missing wavelength factor in steering vector definition corrected above on February 10, 2012.

aircraft data

range

Left image shows area of interest outlined in green. Right image is a zoom into region of interest. Doppler

Image formed with 2.7 seconds of radar dwell time.

clutter image range

aircraft data

Left image shows area of interest outlined in green.

Doppler

Right image results from clutter. suppression processing (STAP) reveals two movers. Note energy is spread over many Doppler cells.

clutter suppressed range

aircraft data

Multiple channels necessary for clutter suppression.

Left image shows area of interest outlined in green. Target Doppler positions

Yellow arrows point to Doppler shifted location of targets.

Doppler

Red arrows point to actual target location as determined by radar processing algorithm (STAP).

Target actual locations

clutter suppressed range

aircraft data

Phase Characteristics Clutter Suppressed Output Nominal Element Space Adaptive Processing (STAP) 8 channels No quadratic phase compensation

Quadratic Phase Frequently Observed in Aircraft Data

clutter suppressed - channels combined

aircraft data

time 2.7 sec.

Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Target Signal Loss SINR(w ) =

w Hs

2

w H Rw optimal w = R −1 s

(signal - to - interference ratio, include consideration to clutter power) (STAP weight vector for maximum SINR, estimate R from data, exclude movers)

max SINR(w ) = SINR(R −1 s ) = ( R −1 s) H s

(max SINR, application of Cauchy - Schwarz inequality)

STAP filter output = w H σ = ( R −1s) H σ = s H R −1σ (for a given target steering vector hypothesis) max SNR = (R -1 s) H s ( gives no consideration to clutter power) n

SINR(R −1 s ) = L sinr SNR

(SINR loss defined relative to SNR)

STAP SINR Loss 8 antenna element aircraft data CNR per channel approx 18 dB

steering vector phase change per channel (deg)

Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Clutter Loss (Suppression) SINR(w ) =

w Hs

2

w H Rw optimal w = R −1 s

(signal - to - interference ratio, include consideration to clutter power) (STAP weight vector for maximum SINR, estimate R from data, exclude movers)

SINR(R −1 s ) = L sinr SNR CNR( w ) = Re k = λ k e k

(SINR loss defined relative to SNR)

w H R c w w H (R − R n ) w w H R w = = H -1 wHRn w wHRn w w Rn w k = 1, 2, ...., N

( eigenvectors and eigenvalues )

CNR( w ) ≤ CNR( e1 )

(max CNR using eigenvector with max eigenvalue as channel summation weights)

CNR( R −1 s ) = L c CNR( e1 )

(defines the clutter suppression, post channel summation, relative to max CNR)

STAP Clutter Suppression 8 element aircraft data CNR per channel approx 18 dB

steering vector phase change per channel (deg)

Analysis: Relation Between Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) and Eigen Image Decomposition R = N by N covariance matrix, N = number of channels R e k = λ k e k k = 1, 2, ...., N R −1 e k = λ −k 1 e k σ = σ (x, y) = [ σ (x, y), σ (x, y), ... , σ (x, y) ]T σ (x, y) =

∑ [e

1

H k

2

N

σ (x, y) ] e k

(data/image vector) (eigenvector expansion, orthonormal basis)

k

e Hk σ (x, y) = eigen - image computed as kth eigenvector projected onto image vector, k = 1, 2, ...., N. −1

−1

w σ = (R s) σ = s R σ = H

H

H

∑ k

(e Hk σ ) λk

(s H e k )

(adaptive processor & eigenvector expansion )

Inverse covariance applied to image stack results in eigen image vector sum as above Moving target energy in eigen images, helps explain why targets are observed in suppressed imagery, following application of inverse covariance matrix to image stack Optimal adaptive processor (STAP) is expressed as weighted sum of eigen images, as given above (applies to element & beam space)

Relation Between Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) and Eigen Image Decomposition e1H σ (x, y)

e H2 σ (x, y)

e3H σ (x, y)

e H4 σ (x, y)

= 0.1220

λ = 0.0818

λ = 0.0518

e5H σ (x, y)

e 6H σ (x, y)

e 7H σ (x, y)

e8H σ (x, y)

λ = 0.0427

λ = 0.0306

λ = 0.0273

λ = 0.0266

λ

= 7.6169

λ

w H σ = (R −1s) H σ = s H R −1σ = ∑ k

(e Hk σ ) λk

(s H e k )

Analysis: Optimal Adaptive Processor is Weighted Sum of Eigen-Images aircraft data

Observation: Variability of Eigenvalues with CNR

ratio largest/smallest eigenvalues = 26

Beam Edge

Bright Uniform Clutter

Eigenvalues of R

Eigenvalues of R

5.9598164 0.46193165 0.31020248 0.28341122 0.26182939 0.25569636 0.24116470 0.22594751

7.6169138 0.12200656 0.081824081 0.051896852 0.042732919 0.030645195 0.027344463 0.026636630

ratio largest/smallest eigenvalues = 286

Greater range of variability of eigenvalues observed for bright clutter aircraft data

Summary Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Formulated for SAR Imagery Assume a system with N displaced along track antenna elements or N azimuth beams ( N channels) SINR(w ) =

w Hs

2

(signal - to - interference ratio, include consideration to clutter power)

w H Rw optimal w = R −1 s

(STAP weight vector for maximum SINR, estimate R from data, exclude movers)

max SINR(w ) = SINR(R −1 s ) = ( R −1 s) H s STAP filter output = w H σ = ( R −1s) H σ = s H R −1σ

(max SINR, application of Cauchy - Schwarz inequality) (for a given target steering vector hypothesis)

application of inverse covariance matrix to image stack apparently suppresses clutter clutter suppressed image stack = ( R −1σ)(x, y) max SNR = (R -n1 s) H s ( gives no consideration to clutter power) SINR(R −1 s ) = L sinr SNR

(SINR loss defined relative to SNR)

w H R c w w H (R − R n ) w w H R w CNR( w ) = H -1 = = H w Rn w wHRn w w Rn w Re k = λ k e k

k = 1, 2, ...., N

( eigenvectors and eigenvalues )

CNR( w ) ≤ CNR( e1 )

(max CNR using eigenvector with max eigenvalue as channel summation weights)

CNR( R −1 s ) = L c CNR( e1 )

(defines the clutter suppression, post channel summation, relative to max CNR)

R −1 e k = λ −k 1 e k

σ (x, y) = ∑ [e Hk σ (x, y) ] e k

(eigenvector expansion, orthonormal basis)

k

e σ (x, y) = eigen - image computed as kth eigenvector projected onto image vector, k = 1, 2, ...., N. H k

w σ = (R s) σ = s R σ = ∑ H

−1

H

H

−1

k

(e Hk σ ) λk

(s H e k )

(adaptive processor & eigenvector expansion )

Last Example: Show Moving Target Quadratic Phase Causes Target Energy to Migrate Through Doppler/Azimuth Cells Single Coherent Data Collection Period (2.7 sec.) Divided into 13 Time Intervals For each time interval 8 channels are processed via STAP and Displayed as a Time Sequenced Movie of 13 Images (azimuth resolution more coarse by factor of 13) Note that SAR image formation applied to the full data collection period, then subdividing the data, mitigates moving target migration through range bins

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 1

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 2

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 3

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 4

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 5

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 6

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 7

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 8

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 9

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 10

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 11

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 12

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Doppler

Moving Target Observed in Clutter Suppressed Imagery

Moving Target 13

Stationary Target range

aircraft data

Ground Moving Targets in SAR Imagery Summary • Nominal Moving Target Phase Equations – Uncompensated motion leads to quadratic, cubic, .. phase

• Measured Moving Target Phase Examples – Cross range motion causes phase characteristics not displayed by stationary targets

• Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Review – SINR, SINR loss, clutter suppression

• STAP applied to 8 channel SAR image data (element space, phase centers) – Single 2.7 sec coherent processing interval (CPI) – Thirteen, 2.7/13 = 0.2077 sec. CPIs, results in SAR movie of moving vehicle, target migration through Doppler cells observed

Appreciation • UCLA’s Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics • Margaret Cheney • The Aerospace Corporation

References Rudge, A. W., Milne, K., Olver, A. D., Knight, P., The Handbook of Antenna Design, Vol. 1, Editors, copyright 1980. Skolnik, M. I., Editor, Radar Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, ISBN 07-057908-3, Chap. 9 Aperture-antenna Analysis, by J. W. Sherman, pp 9-2 to 9-9, 1970. Walker, J. L., “Range Doppler Imaging of Rotating Objects,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-16, pp. 2352, Jan. 1980. Brown, W. M., “Walker Model for Radar Sensing of Rigid Target Fields,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electronic Systems, Vol. AES16, pp. 104-107, Jan. 1980. Munson, D. C., O’Brien, J. D., Jenkins, W. K., “A Tomographic Formulation of Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar,” Proc. IEEE, Vol. 71, pp. 917-925, Aug. 1983. Ausherman, D. A., et al, “Developments in Radar Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-20, No. 4, pp. 363-399, July 1984. This paper includes the Fourier transform result in the bistatic SAR case. Jakowatz, C. V., Thompson, P. A.,” A New Look at Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar as Tomography: Imaging ThreeDimensional Targets,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-4, No. 5, pp. 699-703, May 1995. Carrara, W. G., Goodman, R. S., Majewski, R. M., Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Artech House, Boston, ISBN 0-89006-728-7, pp. 501-506 (range deskew), 1995. Jakowatz, C. V., Thompson, P. A.,” A New Look at Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar as Tomography: Imaging ThreeDimensional Targets,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-4, No. 5, pp. 699-703, May 1995. Jakowatz, C. V., Wahl, D. E., Eichel, P. H., Ghiglia, D. C., Thompson, P. A., Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach, pp. 62-103, pp. 187-191, and Appendix C, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1996.

References Wehner, D. R., High Resolution Radar, Artech House, Boston, ISBN 0-89006-194-7, pp. 211-214, 1987. Curlander, J. C., McDonough, R. N., Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems and Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-471-85770-X, pp. 120-124, 1991. Brennan, L.E. Reed, I. S., Theory of Adaptive Radar, IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-9, No. 2, March 1973. Ward, J., “Space-Time Adaptive Processing fir Airborne Radar,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report 1015, December 13, 1994, Lexington, MA. Guerci, J. R., Goldstein, J. S., Reed, I. S., “Optimal and Adaptive Reduced-Rank STAP,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 647-663, April 2000. Melvin, W. L., “A STAP Overview,” IEEE A&E Systems Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 2004, Part 2: Tutorials-Melvin.

Backup Charts

Antenna Patterns: Aircraft Data Beam pattern 8 element sum

dB

dB

Single element beam pattern

azimuth index PRF span

Azimuth Beam pattern estimated using b(y) = Σ σ (x, y) , 2

x = range, y = azimuth

PRF span Observe: azimuth beamwidth narrows following summation of data from each azimuth element (channel)

x

B(y) = 10 log10 (b(y) b max ) b max = max(b), max computed excluding large discretes

Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Nick Marechal The Aerospace Corp. February 6, 2012 © The Aerospace Corpora...